Natural hazards and disasters chapter 18 the future where do we go from here
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Natural Hazards and Disasters Chapter 18 The Future: Where Do We Go From Here?. We Are The Problem. Problems arise when people put themselves where they can be impacted by major natural events. Building in the floodplain. Building in lahar channels. Building in liquefaction-prone areas.

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Natural Hazards and Disasters Chapter 18 The Future: Where Do We Go From Here?

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Natural hazards and disasters chapter 18 the future where do we go from here

Natural Hazards and Disasters

Chapter 18

The Future: Where Do We Go From Here?


We are the problem

We Are The Problem

  • Problems arise when people put themselves where they can be impacted by major natural events


Building in the floodplain

Building in the floodplain


Building in lahar channels

Building in lahar channels


Building in liquefaction prone areas

Building in liquefaction-prone areas

Marina District, San Francisco, 1989


Sea cliff erosion

Building near the shoreline in Hurricane-prone areas

Sea Cliff Erosion


Building below water level in new orleans after katrina

Building below water levelin New Orleans--AFTER Katrina

FLOODWALL ALONG

30

30

MISSISSIPPI RIVER

HURRICANE

PROTECTION LEVEE

& FLOODWALL

A

20

23 FT

20

B

18 FT PROJECT FLOWLINE

17.5 FT

AVG ANNUAL HIGHWATER 14 FT

SPH DESIGN ELEV 11.5 FT

10

10

NORMAL LAKE 1.0 FT LEVEL

ELEVATIONS IN FEET NGVD

GENTILLY

RIDGE

0

0

UNO

RIVER BANK

-10

-10

LAKE

CATHEDRAL

PONTCHARTRAIN

SHORE

-20

DERBIGNY AT I-10

CANAL ST AT RIVER

-20

ST. ANTHONY AT

GENTILLY BLVD

ESPLANADE AT

WAINRIGHT DR

WAINRIGHT DR

AT L.C. SIMON

DILLARD UNIV

UNO SIDE OF

WILDAIR DR

ST. CLAUDE

ST. LOUIS

AT ALLEN

CAMPUS

MISSISSIPPI


Building along eroding cliffs

Building along eroding cliffs


We are the problem1

We Are The Problem

  • Towns were located where suitable for earlier basic needs, but modern infrastructure is too entrenched for easy relocations


We are the problem2

We Are The Problem

  • People continue to make poor choices, based on:

    • leisure

    • recreation

    • aesthetics

    • convenience

    • economics (short-term gain, long-term loss)


Risk assessment

Risk Assessment

  • People understand that there are risks in life (?), and choose to accept some of them, or believe that risked event “won’t happen to me”


Hazard assessment and mitigation

Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

  • We can control nature: True or False?

  • The more we hold back the effect of large natural event, the worse the effect will eventually be

  • Examples


Hazard assessment and mitigation1

Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

  • Short-term ‘cures’ to nature’s rampages:

    short-term political considerations

  • Fail to see that the more we hold back the effect of large natural event, the worse the effect will eventually be


Hazard assessment and mitigation2

Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

  • After major disasters, large-scale improvements are rarely implemented

  • Examples: Floods of ‘93, Katrina ‘05

  • Preferred approach is to react after disaster

  • It’s easy to forget after a few years…we have short memories


Hazard assessment and mitigation3

Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

  • ‘Soft’ solutions include zoning to prevent building, strict building codes

    ->These are vigorously opposed by developers

  • ‘Hard’ solutions include installing levees, concrete barriers, riprap, catchment basins and landslide drains

    ->These are paid for by taxpayers who don’t necessarily live in the affected areas


Societal attitudes

Societal Attitudes

  • Who should be responsible?

    • Seller, purchaser, developer, or government

    • Caveat emptor: ‘buyer beware’

    • Seller often held responsible if aware

    • Government held responsible because deeper pockets than others

    • Federal Government bails out poor decisions by local government


Societal attitudes1

Societal Attitudes

  • People are suspicious of Federal Government until a disaster strikes

  • Tax cuts limit funding for infrastructure maintenance and disaster relief

  • Federal policy has shifted to mitigation, with funds for rebuilding only in safer location or in safer way


Education

Education

  • Billions of tax dollars are spent to protect inherently high-risk areas for benefit of few


After a disaster

After a Disaster

  • Property rights advocates maintain that landowners should be permitted to do whatever they wish with their property

  • Insurance companies have begun to refuse to renew policies or dramatically increase policies in dangerous areas

  • People living in known hazardous areas should be required to purchase insurance or be ineligible for public relief


Education1

Education

  • Solution should be to educate public about natural hazards and processes

  • People often do not want to be educated about natural hazards – window of opportunity is within a year or so of major natural catastrophe


Different ground rules for the poor

Different Ground Rules for the Poor

  • How do you evacuate if you don’t own a car?

  • Should public housing be only in low-lying areas?

  • Do the poor deserve to be more at-risk?


Global warming evidence

Global Warming Evidence


Global warming evidence1

Global Warming Evidence


Is global warming real

Is Global Warming Real?

  • 20 years of data:


Is global warming real1

Is Global Warming Real?

  • 130 years of data:


Global warming impacts

Global Warming Impacts

  • Millions will die by increased incidence of:

    • storms and coastal flooding

    • heat stroke

    • dehydration

    • famine

    • disease

    • wars over water, food, heating fuel and other resources


Global warming impacts1

Global Warming Impacts

  • Global warming will lead to

  • more rapid erosion of coastlines,

  • more extremes in weather

  • more landslides, floods, hurricanes and wildfires


Relationship between global warming and fires

Relationship between Global Warming and Fires


Worse problems to come

Worse Problems to Come?

  • Increase in hurricane activity is attributed to increase in sea surface temperature

  • Poorer countries sustain much greater disaster losses relative to their total economic viability – more likely to remain mired in poverty

  • Population pressure will increase losses from natural disasters


War on terror

“War on Terror”

What leads to more deaths:

Terrorism or Natural Disasters?


War on terror1

“War on Terror”

  • Since 2001: (NRC Handelsblad)

  • “The list counts 7,085 dead and 10,132 wounded – numbers that need to be made widely known.”

  • 2004 Earthquake killed 229,000 people

  • Fig. 18-7: Annual U.S. deaths from hazards

    500

    So in the last 8 years: 4000


If you had 1 trillion

If you had $1 Trillion…

• Move people out of low areas of New Orleans

• Refurbish houses in earthquake-prone areas

• Relocate houses prone to liquefaction

• Fire-proof houses in the forest

• Volcanic hazards?

• Flood plain relocations

• Hurricane evacuation plans

• Levee improvements

Balance mitigation vs. planning vs. recovery


Personal choices

Personal choices

  • Where do you plan to live?

  • Where is your house relative to natural hazards?

  • Will you drive or bike or use public transportation?

  • Will you be prepared for disasters, or wait for FEMA to bail you out?


Natural hazards and disasters chapter 18 the future where do we go from here

Mt. Rainier


Natural hazards and disasters chapter 18 the future where do we go from here

El Salvador volcano-dormant for 1700 years


The san francisco bay area

The San Francisco Bay Area


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