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Elective Public Management – Week 8 HR in the Public Sector. Prof. Dr. Andreas Bergmann Institute of Public Management [email protected] Civil servants vs. Employees. Civil servants Tenured status In Germany for lifetime

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elective public management week 8 hr in the public sector
Elective Public Management – Week 8HR in the Public Sector
civil servants vs employees
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • Civil servants
      • Tenured status
        • In Germany for lifetime
        • Elsewhere typically for a few years (e.g. 4 to 6; almost guaranteed renewal)
      • High levels of values: Integrity, political impartiality, merit, loyalty, devotion to public service
      • Not contracted but elected, as consequence no normal termination of contract
      • In some countries separate pension schemes
civil servants vs employees1
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • Employees
      • Contract or other forms of consensus mechanism
      • Loyalty limited to contractual obligations
      • Discontinuation possible, by both parties
      • Normal fringe benefits, similar to private sector
civil servants vs employees2
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • Under NPM
      • Many countries change from (special status) civil servants to employees, in order to
        • Increase flexibility
        • Save cost
        • Introduce performance management systems
      • „Hybridisation“
civil servants vs employees3
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • Under NPM
      • Switzerland: Cantons abolish special status in 1990s, federal government in 2001
        • Also for current civil servants
        • Facilitated through identical pension system for employees and both sectors
        • Free movement between sectors
civil servants vs employees4
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • Under NPM
      • In Germany:
        • Number of employees increased, now about 2/3
        • But civil servant status maintained
          • Separate pension schemes as main obstacle
        • Retention of civil service status
          • puts strong limitations on any form of Performance Management and any organizational change
          • Inhibits any change of employment/sector of employment
civil servants vs employees5
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • German pension system for civil servants
      • Only for civil servants, not for employees!
      • Pensions are „pay-as-you-go“, i.e. salary is paid (at reduced level, about 72 percent) even after retirement
      • Pensions are funded same as salaries, i.e. from government budget
      • Entitlement is based on last gross salary
civil servants vs employees6
Civil servants vs. Employees
  • German pension system for civil servants
      • Large number of entitled civil servants to increase
      • Supplementary pension scheme (funded) only recently started
references
References
  • EMERY, Y./GIAUQUE, D.: Employment in the public and private sectors: toward a confusing hybridization process. In: International Review of Public Administration, Vol. 71, 2005, 639-657.
  • KUHLMANN, S./RÖBER, M.: Civil Service in Germany: Characteristics of Public Employment and Modernization of Public Personnel Management. Paper presented at the meeting Modernization of State and Administration in Europe: A France-Germany Comparison, 14-15 May 2004, Bordeaux, Goethe-Institut.
  • OECD: Economic Survey of Germany. 2004.
  • WILSON, R.: Portrait of a profession revisited. In: Public Administration, Vol. 81, 2003, 365-378.
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