Elective public management week 8 hr in the public sector
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Elective Public Management – Week 8 HR in the Public Sector. Prof. Dr. Andreas Bergmann Institute of Public Management [email protected] Civil servants vs. Employees. Civil servants Tenured status In Germany for lifetime

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Elective Public Management – Week 8 HR in the Public Sector

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Elective public management week 8 hr in the public sector

Elective Public Management – Week 8HR in the Public Sector

  • Prof. Dr. Andreas Bergmann

  • Institute of Public Management

  • [email protected]


Civil servants vs employees

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • Civil servants

    • Tenured status

      • In Germany for lifetime

      • Elsewhere typically for a few years (e.g. 4 to 6; almost guaranteed renewal)

    • High levels of values: Integrity, political impartiality, merit, loyalty, devotion to public service

    • Not contracted but elected, as consequence no normal termination of contract

    • In some countries separate pension schemes


Civil servants vs employees1

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • Employees

    • Contract or other forms of consensus mechanism

    • Loyalty limited to contractual obligations

    • Discontinuation possible, by both parties

    • Normal fringe benefits, similar to private sector


Civil servants vs employees2

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • Under NPM

    • Many countries change from (special status) civil servants to employees, in order to

      • Increase flexibility

      • Save cost

      • Introduce performance management systems

    • „Hybridisation“


Civil servants vs employees3

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • Under NPM

    • Switzerland: Cantons abolish special status in 1990s, federal government in 2001

      • Also for current civil servants

      • Facilitated through identical pension system for employees and both sectors

      • Free movement between sectors


Civil servants vs employees4

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • Under NPM

    • In Germany:

      • Number of employees increased, now about 2/3

      • But civil servant status maintained

        • Separate pension schemes as main obstacle

      • Retention of civil service status

        • puts strong limitations on any form of Performance Management and any organizational change

        • Inhibits any change of employment/sector of employment


Civil servants vs employees5

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • German pension system for civil servants

    • Only for civil servants, not for employees!

    • Pensions are „pay-as-you-go“, i.e. salary is paid (at reduced level, about 72 percent) even after retirement

    • Pensions are funded same as salaries, i.e. from government budget

    • Entitlement is based on last gross salary


Civil servants vs employees6

Civil servants vs. Employees

  • German pension system for civil servants

    • Large number of entitled civil servants to increase

    • Supplementary pension scheme (funded) only recently started


References

References

  • EMERY, Y./GIAUQUE, D.: Employment in the public and private sectors: toward a confusing hybridization process. In: International Review of Public Administration, Vol. 71, 2005, 639-657.

  • KUHLMANN, S./RÖBER, M.: Civil Service in Germany: Characteristics of Public Employment and Modernization of Public Personnel Management. Paper presented at the meeting Modernization of State and Administration in Europe: A France-Germany Comparison, 14-15 May 2004, Bordeaux, Goethe-Institut.

  • OECD: Economic Survey of Germany. 2004.

  • WILSON, R.: Portrait of a profession revisited. In: Public Administration, Vol. 81, 2003, 365-378.


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