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Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs






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Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs

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3. What are the differences between the somatic and the autonomic N.S? Somatic N.S Autonomic N.S Control skeletal muscles Control internal viscera Voluntary Involuntary Somatic nerve is one fiber Two fibers (Pre & postganglionic)

4.

5. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM consists of : The sympathetic or thoracolumbar outflow. 2. The parasympathetic or craniosacral outflow.

7. Neurotransmitter in parasympathetic or cholinergic system is acetylcholine and nerves are cholinergic

8. Hydrolysis of acetylcholine (Ach) is by Acetyl cholinesterase cholinesterase Acetylcholine acetate + choline

9. Cholinergic or parasympathetic receptors Nicotinic (Central cholinergic ) receptors. 2. Muscarinic (Peripheral cholinergic) receptors.

11. Cholinergic drugs (cholinomimetics) Drugs that produce actions similar to cholinergic system stimulation Cholinergic receptor blockers Drugs that block cholinergic receptors thus prevent actions of cholinomimetics

14. Cholinomimetics = Parasympathomimetics Types 1. Direct cholinomimetics Act by direct stimulation of cholinergic receptors. 2. Indirect cholinomimetics They act indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase thus prevent the degradation of Ach.

15. 1. Direct cholinomimetics Naturally occurring alkaloids e.g. Pilocarpine Synthetic choline esters Acetylcholine Methacholine Carbachol Bethanechol

16. 2. Indirect acting cholinomimetics

19. Uses of cholinomimetics ================= Treatment of galucoma (Pilocarpine- carbachol - physostigmine). Postoperative paralytic ileus & urinary retention (bethanechol ? carbachol ? neostigmine). Treatment of myasthenia gravis (neostigmine). Antimuscarinic drug intoxication

20. e.g. atropine and hyoscine

22. Uses of antimuscarinics Bronchial asthma Parkinsonism Ophthalmoscope examination of retina Peptic ulcer (Pirenzepine). Antiemetics, motion sickness (Hyoscine). Antispasmodic for intestinal and renal colics Traveller 's diarrhea Pre-anesthetic medication.

24. Thank you


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