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The Russian Revolution. Mrs. Browne Hornell High School Global Studies II. Background to the 1917 Revolution. Features that made Russia difficult to rule in the 1800’s were: Russia was immense in size spanning both Europe and Asia Russia still had a rigid social class structure

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Mrs. Browne Hornell High School Global Studies II

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Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

TheRussian Revolution

Mrs. Browne

Hornell High School

Global Studies II


Background to the 1917 revolution

Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Features that made Russia difficult to rule in the 1800’s were:

    • Russia was immense in size spanning both Europe and Asia

    • Russia still had a rigid social class structure

    • Russia was mostly rural & agricultural

    • Russia was ruled by the Romanov czars for over 300 years


Russia s immense size

Russia’s immense size


Russia s immense size1

Russia’s immense size


Russia s immense size2

Russia’s immense size


Russia s social class system

Russia’s Social Class System


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

Early 20c: Russian Social Hierarchy


Russia in the early 1900 s

Russia in the early 1900’s

Rural & agricultural!


Russia rural agricultural

Russia: Rural & Agricultural!


Russia rural agricultural1

Russia: Rural & Agricultural!


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

First Stages of Industrialization

An Early Russian Factory


The rule of the romanov s

The Rule of the Romanov’s

Nicholas II The Last Romanov Czar!


The rule of the romanov s1

The Rule of the Romanov’s

  • Three Pillars of Russian Absolutism

    “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism”

    • Orthodoxy = Russian Orthodox Church

    • Autocracy = absolute power of the state

    • Nationalism = Russian 1st , all other ethnicities in the empire are a distant 2nd

      by NOT allowing any reform or diversity, resentment grew against the Czar !


The rule of the romanov s2

The Rule of the Romanov’s

  • “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism”


Background to the 1917 revolution1

Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Essential Question #1

    • Identify and explain 3 features of Russia that made it difficult to rule in the 1800’s.


Background to the 1917 revolution2

Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Other Key Events also led to the 1917 Revolution

    • Reforms came too little, too late

    • The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905

    • The Russian Revolution of 1905

    • World War I


Too little too late reforms

Too Little, Too Late Reforms

  • Serfdom abolished (finally) in 1861

  • Zemstvos (locally elected gov’ts) were allowed to exist

  • Military service requirements are decreased

  • Trans-Siberian railroad was begun in the 1890’s & stretches over 5,000 miles

  • BUT…

    • Peasants still poor, uneducated

    • Women still denied university education

    • Jews are persecuted

    • Workers experience horrible conditions


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905]


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

The Russo-Japanese War

  • Russia not only loses the war to Japan but is HUMILIATED!

  • Japan had just gone through the Meiji Restoration AND was now modern & industrial – especially when compared to Russia!

  • Russia is the first European nation to lose a war to an Asian nation


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

The Russian Revolution of 1905

Father GeorgiGapon:

Leads a group to the Winter Palace of the Czar. They seek relief for poor working conditions, poverty, …

But, the soldiers are spooked and fire upon the crowd… the event becomes known as “Bloody Sunday”


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

The Russian Revolution of 1905

  • Czar Nicholas II is forced to make concessions:

  • He agrees to a Duma or an elected legislature

  • He issues the October Manifesto where he promises more freedoms


Mrs browne hornell high school global studies ii

The Russian Revolution of 1905

  • However…despite these promised reforms….

    • The autocracy of the Russian Czar was reaffirmed in their constitution.

    • The Czar was considered supreme over the law, the church, and the Duma.


World war i

World War I

  • Russia enters World War I on the side of the Allies

    • Russia was big brother to Serbia (another Slavic nation)

    • France had invested heavily ($) in Russia helping to build the Trans-Siberian Railway

    • BUT…..


World war i1

World War I

  • Russia is NOT prepared for war!

    • Lack of weapons

    • Lack of supplies

    • Lack of food

    • Lack of competent military leaders

  • Czar Nicholas II compounds the problem

    • He goes to the front lines

    • He leaves the Czarina Alexandra in charge


World war i2

World War I

  • Russia under the Czarina

    • She was mistrusted by many

    • She was preoccupied with finding a cure for their son Alexi’s hemophilia


World war i3

World War I

  • Enter Rasputin…

    • Known as the “Mad Monk”

    • Claimed healing powers & did seem able to help Alexi

    • The Czarina, therefore, gave him full access and relied on him for most decisions

    • Rasputin grew POWERFUL which alarmed many close to the Czar


World war i4

World War I


Rasputin

Rasputin


Background to the 1917 revolution3

Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Essential Question #2

    • Identify and explain 3 events that lead to the Russian Revolution of 1917.


The 1917 russian revolution

The 1917 Russian Revolution


The 1917 russian revolution1

The 1917 Russian Revolution


The 1917 russian revolution2

The 1917 Russian Revolution

  • From the video excerpt… Why did Russians support the Revolution?

    • Classless society

    • Equality

    • End of war

    • Justice

    • To share in the “good”

    • land


The 1917 russian revolution3

The 1917 Russian Revolution

  • Russia does NOT become a communist nation then until AFTER the second phase of the 1917 Russian Revolution .

  • In 1922, Russia is renamed… U.S.S.R. the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union.

  • Lenin used Marx’s theory to launch his revolution!


1917 1921

1917 - 1921

  • Lenin wanted to create a new Russia where Marx’s theory was used

    • Classless society

    • The people controlled the production


1917 19211

1917 - 1921

  • Other main ideas of Marx:

    • 1848 Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels

    • proletariat (workers)

    • Also thought workers would unite across nations


The 1917 russian revolution4

The 1917 Russian Revolution

  • Essential Question #3

    • Who were the Bolsheviks and how were they able to gain support?


1917 19212

1917-1921

1. Russia’s problems are NOT over!


1917 19213

1917-1921

2. Russia erupts into Civil War!

  • Reds vs. Whites

    • Reds = Lenin’s armies

    • Whites = those who wanted a return of the czar

      3. Lenin uses “war communism” to help win the war

      - war communism placed banks and industries under Communist control

      - war communism seized grain from the peasants

      - war communism placed state government administration under Communist control.


1917 19214

1917-1921

4. Lenin creates and uses the Cheka or secret police

- those who opposed the Communists are destroyed!

5. Lenin does not oppose the execution of the royal family


1921 1924

1921-1924

6. The Red Army wins the civil war but at a high cost!

  • Lenin has to pick up the pieces of his war torn nation

  • War Communism  N.E.P

  • N.E.P.

    • New Economic Policy

    • Allows for limited capitalism

    • Lenin needs to win back support of peasants who want to be able to sell their surplus grain for profit


  • 1921 19241

    1921-1924

    • N.E.P. (Cont’d)

      • Small retail stores and small industry was also allowed for profit

      • Within a year: production was up, famine had ended, and the communists were well regarded

      • The NEP was successful BUT it was only a temporary measure


    1921 19242

    1921-1924

    • Lenin suffers a stroke and dies in 1924

    • Battle for the next leader of the USSR begins

      • Leon Trotsky vs. Josef Stalin


    1917 1928

    1917-1928

    • Essential Question #4

      • Why did civil war erupt in Russia? How were the communists able to win?

    • Essential Question #5

      • Describe in detailV.I.Lenin’s two economic plans: war communism and the NEP.


    1924 1928

    1924 - 1928

    • Stalin’s rise to power


    1928 1953

    1928 - 1953

    • Stalin Rules the USSR

      • Stalin has Trotsky removed, exiled, then killed

      • Stalin begins his focus on industrializing & strengthening the USSR

        • 5 year plans

        • Collectivization

        • The Great Purges


    1928 19531

    1928 - 1953

    • Stalin’s Totalitarian State

      • Stalin controlled ALL aspects of life in the USSR


    1928 19532

    1928 - 1953

    • Essential Question #6

      • How did Stalin’s totalitarian rule affect education, religion and propaganda?

    • Essential Question #7

      • Describe in detail the following programs created by Stalin: 5 Year Plans, collectivization, the Great Purges


    What are the similarities and differences between lenin stalin

    What are the similarities and differences between Lenin & Stalin?

    Similarities:

    ~ both wanted to use then spread communism

    ~life was difficult~ focus on economy

    ~ use of secret police to control~famine


    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    • What is it?

      • Ideas spread to influence public opinion either FOR or AGAINST a cause

    • What form can it take?

      • Slogans, posters, artwork, songs, etc.

    • What types of messages can it send?

      • Can be either positive or negative

      • Can arouse certain feelings like pride, guilt or hatred


    Propaganda1

    Propaganda

    Analyzing Propaganda

    What type of document is it?

    2. What is the date ? (or approximate)

    3. For what audience was the document created?

    4. Is there a message or slogan? If so, what does it say?

    5. What image(s) are seen in the document?

    6. What overall message is the document sending the viewer ?

    “We are for peace” ~ Stalin


    Propaganda2

    Propaganda

    Analyzing Propaganda

    • What type of document is it?

      2. What is the date ? (or approximate)

      3. For what audience was the document created?

      4. Is there a message or slogan? If so, what does it say?

      5. What image(s) are seen in the document?

      6. What overall message is the document sending the viewer ?

    “My Dear Homeland, You Can Rely On Us”


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • What were the long term causes of the 1917 Revolution?

    • What were some of the short term causes of the 1917 Revolution?

    • Why did the provisional government fail?

    • What are the similarities and differences between Lenin & Stalin?

    • Why was Stalin able to rule for 30 years?


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