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Mrs. Browne Hornell High School Global Studies II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Russian Revolution. Mrs. Browne Hornell High School Global Studies II. Background to the 1917 Revolution. Features that made Russia difficult to rule in the 1800’s were: Russia was immense in size spanning both Europe and Asia Russia still had a rigid social class structure

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Mrs. Browne Hornell High School Global Studies II

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TheRussian Revolution

Mrs. Browne

Hornell High School

Global Studies II


Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Features that made Russia difficult to rule in the 1800’s were:

    • Russia was immense in size spanning both Europe and Asia

    • Russia still had a rigid social class structure

    • Russia was mostly rural & agricultural

    • Russia was ruled by the Romanov czars for over 300 years


Russia’s immense size


Russia’s immense size


Russia’s immense size


Russia’s Social Class System


Early 20c: Russian Social Hierarchy


Russia in the early 1900’s

Rural & agricultural!


Russia: Rural & Agricultural!


Russia: Rural & Agricultural!


First Stages of Industrialization

An Early Russian Factory


The Rule of the Romanov’s

Nicholas II The Last Romanov Czar!


The Rule of the Romanov’s

  • Three Pillars of Russian Absolutism

    “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism”

    • Orthodoxy = Russian Orthodox Church

    • Autocracy = absolute power of the state

    • Nationalism = Russian 1st , all other ethnicities in the empire are a distant 2nd

      by NOT allowing any reform or diversity, resentment grew against the Czar !


The Rule of the Romanov’s

  • “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism”


Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Essential Question #1

    • Identify and explain 3 features of Russia that made it difficult to rule in the 1800’s.


Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Other Key Events also led to the 1917 Revolution

    • Reforms came too little, too late

    • The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905

    • The Russian Revolution of 1905

    • World War I


Too Little, Too Late Reforms

  • Serfdom abolished (finally) in 1861

  • Zemstvos (locally elected gov’ts) were allowed to exist

  • Military service requirements are decreased

  • Trans-Siberian railroad was begun in the 1890’s & stretches over 5,000 miles

  • BUT…

    • Peasants still poor, uneducated

    • Women still denied university education

    • Jews are persecuted

    • Workers experience horrible conditions


Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905]


The Russo-Japanese War

  • Russia not only loses the war to Japan but is HUMILIATED!

  • Japan had just gone through the Meiji Restoration AND was now modern & industrial – especially when compared to Russia!

  • Russia is the first European nation to lose a war to an Asian nation


The Russian Revolution of 1905

Father GeorgiGapon:

Leads a group to the Winter Palace of the Czar. They seek relief for poor working conditions, poverty, …

But, the soldiers are spooked and fire upon the crowd… the event becomes known as “Bloody Sunday”


The Russian Revolution of 1905

  • Czar Nicholas II is forced to make concessions:

  • He agrees to a Duma or an elected legislature

  • He issues the October Manifesto where he promises more freedoms


The Russian Revolution of 1905

  • However…despite these promised reforms….

    • The autocracy of the Russian Czar was reaffirmed in their constitution.

    • The Czar was considered supreme over the law, the church, and the Duma.


World War I

  • Russia enters World War I on the side of the Allies

    • Russia was big brother to Serbia (another Slavic nation)

    • France had invested heavily ($) in Russia helping to build the Trans-Siberian Railway

    • BUT…..


World War I

  • Russia is NOT prepared for war!

    • Lack of weapons

    • Lack of supplies

    • Lack of food

    • Lack of competent military leaders

  • Czar Nicholas II compounds the problem

    • He goes to the front lines

    • He leaves the Czarina Alexandra in charge


World War I

  • Russia under the Czarina

    • She was mistrusted by many

    • She was preoccupied with finding a cure for their son Alexi’s hemophilia


World War I

  • Enter Rasputin…

    • Known as the “Mad Monk”

    • Claimed healing powers & did seem able to help Alexi

    • The Czarina, therefore, gave him full access and relied on him for most decisions

    • Rasputin grew POWERFUL which alarmed many close to the Czar


World War I


Rasputin


Background to the 1917 Revolution

  • Essential Question #2

    • Identify and explain 3 events that lead to the Russian Revolution of 1917.


The 1917 Russian Revolution


The 1917 Russian Revolution


The 1917 Russian Revolution

  • From the video excerpt… Why did Russians support the Revolution?

    • Classless society

    • Equality

    • End of war

    • Justice

    • To share in the “good”

    • land


The 1917 Russian Revolution

  • Russia does NOT become a communist nation then until AFTER the second phase of the 1917 Russian Revolution .

  • In 1922, Russia is renamed… U.S.S.R. the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union.

  • Lenin used Marx’s theory to launch his revolution!


1917 - 1921

  • Lenin wanted to create a new Russia where Marx’s theory was used

    • Classless society

    • The people controlled the production


1917 - 1921

  • Other main ideas of Marx:

    • 1848 Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels

    • proletariat (workers)

    • Also thought workers would unite across nations


The 1917 Russian Revolution

  • Essential Question #3

    • Who were the Bolsheviks and how were they able to gain support?


1917-1921

1. Russia’s problems are NOT over!


1917-1921

2. Russia erupts into Civil War!

  • Reds vs. Whites

    • Reds = Lenin’s armies

    • Whites = those who wanted a return of the czar

      3. Lenin uses “war communism” to help win the war

      - war communism placed banks and industries under Communist control

      - war communism seized grain from the peasants

      - war communism placed state government administration under Communist control.


1917-1921

4. Lenin creates and uses the Cheka or secret police

- those who opposed the Communists are destroyed!

5. Lenin does not oppose the execution of the royal family


1921-1924

6. The Red Army wins the civil war but at a high cost!

  • Lenin has to pick up the pieces of his war torn nation

  • War Communism  N.E.P

  • N.E.P.

    • New Economic Policy

    • Allows for limited capitalism

    • Lenin needs to win back support of peasants who want to be able to sell their surplus grain for profit


  • 1921-1924

    • N.E.P. (Cont’d)

      • Small retail stores and small industry was also allowed for profit

      • Within a year: production was up, famine had ended, and the communists were well regarded

      • The NEP was successful BUT it was only a temporary measure


    1921-1924

    • Lenin suffers a stroke and dies in 1924

    • Battle for the next leader of the USSR begins

      • Leon Trotsky vs. Josef Stalin


    1917-1928

    • Essential Question #4

      • Why did civil war erupt in Russia? How were the communists able to win?

    • Essential Question #5

      • Describe in detailV.I.Lenin’s two economic plans: war communism and the NEP.


    1924 - 1928

    • Stalin’s rise to power


    1928 - 1953

    • Stalin Rules the USSR

      • Stalin has Trotsky removed, exiled, then killed

      • Stalin begins his focus on industrializing & strengthening the USSR

        • 5 year plans

        • Collectivization

        • The Great Purges


    1928 - 1953

    • Stalin’s Totalitarian State

      • Stalin controlled ALL aspects of life in the USSR


    1928 - 1953

    • Essential Question #6

      • How did Stalin’s totalitarian rule affect education, religion and propaganda?

    • Essential Question #7

      • Describe in detail the following programs created by Stalin: 5 Year Plans, collectivization, the Great Purges


    What are the similarities and differences between Lenin & Stalin?

    Similarities:

    ~ both wanted to use then spread communism

    ~life was difficult~ focus on economy

    ~ use of secret police to control~famine


    Propaganda

    • What is it?

      • Ideas spread to influence public opinion either FOR or AGAINST a cause

    • What form can it take?

      • Slogans, posters, artwork, songs, etc.

    • What types of messages can it send?

      • Can be either positive or negative

      • Can arouse certain feelings like pride, guilt or hatred


    Propaganda

    Analyzing Propaganda

    What type of document is it?

    2. What is the date ? (or approximate)

    3. For what audience was the document created?

    4. Is there a message or slogan? If so, what does it say?

    5. What image(s) are seen in the document?

    6. What overall message is the document sending the viewer ?

    “We are for peace” ~ Stalin


    Propaganda

    Analyzing Propaganda

    • What type of document is it?

      2. What is the date ? (or approximate)

      3. For what audience was the document created?

      4. Is there a message or slogan? If so, what does it say?

      5. What image(s) are seen in the document?

      6. What overall message is the document sending the viewer ?

    “My Dear Homeland, You Can Rely On Us”


    Conclusion

    • What were the long term causes of the 1917 Revolution?

    • What were some of the short term causes of the 1917 Revolution?

    • Why did the provisional government fail?

    • What are the similarities and differences between Lenin & Stalin?

    • Why was Stalin able to rule for 30 years?


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