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Campus Lead Testing. By Kim Fulford Matthew Emery. Fun Facts. Ancients They regarded lead as the father of all metals, so they associated Saturn with the metal.

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Campus lead testing

Campus Lead Testing

By

Kim Fulford

Matthew Emery


Fun facts
Fun Facts

  • Ancients

    • They regarded lead as the father of all metals, so they associated Saturn with the metal.

    • “Saturnine“ applies to an individual whose temperament has become gloomy, cynical, and taciturn as the results of lead intoxication.

  • Lead used in:

    • face powders, rouges, and mascaras

    • the pigment in many paints

      • "crazy as a painter" was an ancient catch phrase rooted in the demented behavior of lead-poisoned painters

    • a spermicide for informal birth control

    • a sweet and sour condiment popular for seasoning food

    • a wine preservative perfect for stopping fermentation or disguising inferior vintages

  • "plumbing" comes from the Latin word for lead, plumbum.


History of lead
History of Lead

References to lead all throughout history

Earliest recording of lead is found in Exodus

Bronze Age brought many more documentations of lead use; original lead artifacts have been discovered also

Roman’s used lead for underground pipe work; the Roman symbol can still be found today

They found lead to be a very versatile metal; was very durable and malleable

As time went on, leads usage decreased.


History of lead con t
History of Lead Con’t

Hippocrates found that human children and adults were getting sick; it was he who realized the sickness was from the negative effects from working around lead fumes.

Introduced the “first” air filtering system using a pig bladder.

Illness seemed to follow exposure to lead, so by the mid 1800’s they started to decrease the use of lead in certain products that humans would come in contact with.


Lead standard
Lead Standard

  • 29 CFR 1910.1025

    • 1910.1025(c)(1) The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 ug/m(3)) averaged over an 8-hour period.1910.1025(c)(2) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula: Maximum permissible limit (in ug/m(3))=400 divided by hours worked in the day.




Exposures to lead
Exposures to Lead

  • Main exposure pathways:

    • Inhalation, ingestion, and absorption

  • OSHA PEL - .05 mg/m3

  • NIOSH REL and PEL match OSHA

  • IDLH - 100 mg/m3

  • Due to the many health concerns, many companies will prohibit women from working in conditions that have a high risk of lead exposure during childbearing years; men are not wholly excluded from this

  • They do this for the protection of children that might be born to these women


Health hazards and regulations
Health Hazards and Regulations

  • NIOSH: harmful effects associated with lead exposure:

    • weakness

    • excessive tiredness

    • irritability

    • constipation

    • anorexia

    • abdominal discomfort

    • fine tremors

    • wrist drop


Health hazards continued
Health Hazards Continued

  • Target Organs and other health effects that can occur:

    • Kidneys

    • Nervous system

    • Anemia

    • high blood pressure

    • impotence, infertility, and reduced sex drive

    • Lead poisoning

    • Neurological effects

    • Mental retardation have occurred in the children of workers engaged in the occupations where there is lead exposure


Past usages of lead
Past Usages of Lead

In the past, lead was used for the following:

Paint

Plumbing

Preservatives

Gasoline

Bullets


Aims of the study
Aims of the Study

  • Determine if there is any lead in campus daycare toys

  • Determine the amount of lead in paint if there is any


Description of the job
Description of the Job

  • Picked two locations to perform test

    • Knee High Day Care and Campus View Apartments Day Care

  • Contacted both and set up times to inspect toys

  • Set up area to perform test

  • Selected toys to be tested

  • Tested toys and analyzed data


Analysis guidelines
Analysis Guidelines

  • OSHA Tech Manual

    • Sec. I “The Use of Surface Contamination Sampling in Evaluating Safety and Health Programs”

      • 29 CFR 1910.132 requires the assessment of the [day care] to determine if it is likely to have [lead] present…

        • Controlled Work Area Requiring PPE

        • Controlled Work Area Requiring Special Cleaning

        • Non-controlled Work Area [no PPE required]


Guidelines con t
Guidelines con’t

  • It was determined that Day Care’s are:

    • Non-controlled Work Areas

    • Meaning that there is no reason to believe that there would be an exposure to lead or significant contamination


Technical equipment
Technical Equipment

Instant Lead Testing Swabs

Ghost Wipe Patches

XFR


Instant lead testing
Instant Lead Testing

 1. Squeeze the swab to crush the front glass vial inside.  2. Squeeze the swab to crush the rear glass vial inside.  3. Shake the swab to mix the reagents.

4. While squeezing the swab, rub the surface to be tested for approximately 30 seconds. Within one minute, the swab will turn color if the contaminant is present.


Ghost wipe clothes
Ghost Wipe Clothes

One wipes the surface that is desired to be tested and then sends sample to the lab for further analysis of the contents absorbed.


Niton xfr
Niton XFR

Uses a radiation source to detect any lead in a 1’x 1’ surface section. It has the capabilities to accurately detect up to six layers . Measures in mg/cm2


Methods
Methods

  • Each room with toys was thoroughly looked in and each type of toy was examined and set aside as suspect or not.

    • Suspect determined by

      • Age of the toy

      • List from EPA

      • Makeup of the toy

  • The XRF was then used and if any reading of lead came up then a second and third test was run with the XRF. These were averaged together.

  • After XRF confirmed, the wipe and instant lead test was used. Any positive readings from these tools and the toy is asked to be removed.

  • The toy is then taken back and sent to a lab if needed


Results
Results

Exterior paint was shown to have very high concentration of lead; however, there is NO RISK of exposure. The house has been fully re-sided

A stool was found to have small traces of lead

Certain paint brush handles were found to have small traces of lead

Little wooden toys had traces of lead


Actions to be taken
Actions to be Taken

  • The little wooden stool with traces of lead needs to be sanded down and repainted

  • Little wooden toys with half the allowed concentration should be taken out and replaced

  • Remediation of the outside of Day Care

    • Has recently been fully re-sided; no way for there to be any exposure to the children as the main play area is well away from the house


Additional notes
Additional Notes

Day Care Administration has been through their toys and removed any that may be suspect already. Continued monitoring by staff and others should be on going especially when new toys are introduced.

One day care had a child that tested very high for lead in their system. It is thought to come from the home not the day care.


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