УСКОРИТЕЛИ ЗАРЯЖЕННЫХ ЧАСТИЦ В ФИЗИКЕ
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УСКОРИТЕЛИ ЗАРЯЖЕННЫХ ЧАСТИЦ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ И.Н.Мешков PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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УСКОРИТЕЛИ ЗАРЯЖЕННЫХ ЧАСТИЦ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ И.Н.Мешков VI-я Зимняя школа по Теоретической Физике "Введение в Теорию Фундаментальных Взаимодействий" Дубна, 26 января – 5 февраля 2008 г. Лекция I. 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP

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4592638

УСКОРИТЕЛИ ЗАРЯЖЕННЫХ ЧАСТИЦ В ФИЗИКЕВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ

И.Н.Мешков

VI-я Зимняя школа по Теоретической Физике

"Введение в Теорию Фундаментальных Взаимодействий"

Дубна, 26 января – 5 февраля 2008 г.

Лекция I


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

  • Лекция I

  • Содержание

  • Введение: … из истории физики "субядерных" частиц…ускорители – главное оружие экспериментальной ядерной физики…

  • "Битва Гигантов"

  • 3. Эра встречных пучков

  • 4. Битва гигантов продолжается

  • 5. e+e-коллайдеры – шаг вперёд


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Введение:

…из истории физики "субядерных" частиц…

"субядерных"

1995

1895


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Введение: …из истории физики "субядерных" частиц…

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

The Beginning of Accelerator Physics of Microworld

1895, Konrad Röntgen:

Discovery of X-rays  photon!

1897, Josef John Thomson:

Discovery of electron!


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

1931, R.Van-der-Graaf: electrostatic accelerator

1932, J.D.Cockroft & E.T.S.Walton: electrostatic accelerator ("cascade voltage multiplier")

1932, James Chadwick:

Discovery of neutron!

p + 7Li   + 


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Universe as an Accelerator

("Нерукотворный ускоритель")

1912, Victor Hess: he has found in experiment with 3 electrometers carried out in a free balloon flight up to an altitude of 5300 meters that the ionization rate increased approximately fourfold over the rate at ground level.

He concluded :"The results of my observation are best explained by the assumption that a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above" .

It was

Discovery of what came to be called "cosmic rays".


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Universe as an Accelerator (Contnd)

1932, Carl D. Anderson:

Discovery of positron

(by passing cosmic rays through a "Wilson chamber" with lead plate surrounded by a magnet to distinguish the particles charge)

Dm.Vl.Skobeltsyn missed his chance…

Beginning of "the competition" of accelerators with cosmic rays!


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Advance in Accelerators

1929-1932, Ernest O. Lawrence:

Invention of the resonance acceleration method

Construction of

first cyclotron

and

first resonance linear accelerator


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Cosmic Rays do step forward !

1936, Carl D. Anderson again:

Discovery of "mesotron"

Yukawa particle?

(Hideki Yukawa, 1935)

No!  -meson  muon


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

V. I. Veksler

E.McMillan

V. I. Veksler & E. McMillan

JINR, June 1958

But (!)… they missed Nobel prize!

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Break-through in Accelerators

1944 Vladimir I.Veksler (USSR)

1945 Edwin McMillan (USA)

Invention of the Phase stability principle –

- the basic principle of resonance acceleration !

Construction of

first electron synchrotron (V.I.Veksler)

and

first synchrocyclotron (E.McMillan)

Important for advancing to

high energy accelerators

and

high energy physics on accelerators


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

Pic du Midi, 2877 m

Pic Chacaltaya, 5421 m

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Cosmic rays are progressing !

1947, C.Powell, C.Lattes and G.Occhialini:

Discovery of pion

with photographic emulsion exposed

at 2877 m

(Pic du Midi de Bigorre, Pyrenees)

and at 5421

(Pic Chacaltaya in Bolivian Andes)

1947, G.D.Rochester and G.Butler: Discovery of 0 hyperon (1115,63  2350 MeV)

Discovery of K-mesons, or Kaons:

m(K+) = m(K-) = 493.67 MeV,

m(KS0)  m(KL0)= 497.67 MeV


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

The Doubts and The Hopes

The Doubts:Uncertainties in cosmic rays experimental studies !

(sad known story of "Varitrons" –

- see Uspekhi Phys. Nauk v.61 №2 (1950))

The Hopes: Advance in accelerator technique 

 1st step - synchrocyclotrons


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

1947, E.O.Lawrence,E.McMillan:

Berkeley Synchrocyclotron

184 inches (4.7 m), d 200 MeV,  400 MeV (100 MeV/amu)

1949 Dubna Synchrocyclotron


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

Igor V. Kurchatov

andVenedict

P. Dzhelepov

Mikhail Gr.

Mescheryakov

Phasotron upgrade:

renewed transfer line

(2002)

Cancer therapy

Muon-catalysis

Pion & muon

physics

Nuclear physics

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Synchrocyclotron “Phasotron”

The First Accelerator in Dubna

1949 d 280 MeV  p 480 MeV

1984 p 680 MeV  201?


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

1948, Lattes and E. Gardner:

first artificial production of pions at

Berkeley Synchrocyclotron:

 + 12C  ++ X

Beginning of the 50th, pion physics at

Dubna Synchrocyclotron


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Since that time accelerators became

The Main Tool of High Energy Physics

Majority of experimental results of fundamental character has been obtained both in particle, and nuclear physics at accelerators.


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Introduction: …from History of Subnuclear Particle Physics… (Contnd)

And what about neutrinos?

"The Third Way" (nuclear reactor)

1930, W.Pauli Theoretic prediction:

1956, C.Cowan, F.Reines et al.

Experimental proof:

registration of direct interaction of

electron antineutrinos from nuclear

reactor with nucleons of a target

in reaction

e + p  n + e+

~

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

~


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2. The Battle of Giants

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

E.McMillan & E.Lofgren on

the shielding of the Bevatron

1953 (1948)  1968The Cosmotron – proton synchrotron at Brookhaven Nat. Lab., USA),3.3 GeV; the first accelerator with extraction of the particle beam  meson physics

1955  1993 The Bevatron - proton synchrotronat

Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Lab.(USA), 6.3 GeV ("Billions of eV")

 the first

dedicated accelerator:

Discovery of antiproton

(E.Segre & O.Chamberlain,

1955)


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2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

1957  2001The Synchrophasotron

proton synchrotron at JINR, USSR, 10 GeV; C = 251 m

Various problems in particle physics,

1960 V.I.Veksler et al.:

Discovery of -

1970th A.M.Baldin:

Relativistic nuclear

physics

The Synchrophasotron was the last weak focusing synchrotron: magnet of 36 000 tons


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’Grand mother (babushka),

why is a synchrotron so large…?’

'Just because pc = eB’

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

For instance, Synchrophasotron:

pc  E = 10 GeV, B = 1.6 T (iron!)   = 21 m


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'And why is it so heavy?’

'Because nobody believed yet in strong focusing principle!…'

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

… proposed already!

*) The project of Synchrophasotron was started ~ in 1950

("Die erste kolonne marschiert…", L.Tolstoi)


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

The Next Break-Through

in Accelerator Technique -

-The Strong Focusing Principle

N.Kristofilos (1950, not published)

E.Courant, M.Livingston & H.Snyder (1952)


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PS

AGS

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

First Strong Focusing Proton Synchrotrons

1959 PS ("Proton Synchrotron"), CERN 26 GeV

1960 AGS ("Alternating Gradient Synchrotron"),

Brookhaven Lab., USA28 GeV


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

July 1973 PS CERN:

Direct evidence of the weak neutral current

Neutrinos are generated with p-beam from PS and bombard

the liquid in the bubble chamber Gargamelle.

Such events are called neutral current, because neutral Z0 boson

transfers interaction.


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L.Lederman, M.Schwartz and J.Steinberger

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

AGSBrookhaven National Laboratory:

1962, Discovery of

the muon-neutrino,


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

The Quark Model

1964 M.Gell-Mann & G.Zweig

Hypothesis of quark structure of adrons

u and d quarks  nucleons

s-quark  K-mesons (Kaons) discovered even

in 1947


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U-70

Yuri Dm.Prokoshkin

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

1967 U-70 (Proton Synchrotron), IHEP, Protvino, USSR 76 GeV

1971Discovery of "The Serpukhov Effect":

Growth of total cross section of strong interaction with energy in the energy range of 25 – 65 GeV

(K-mesons x nucleons).

Yu.D.Prokoshkin, S.P.Denisov et al.


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Booster U-1.5

Development

plans:

U-70

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

2008 U-70 Today

U-70 today:

Energy 70 (76) GeV

Intensity 1.5×1013 / 10 s

Proton Synchrotron U-1.5

Energy 1.5 GeV

Intensity 8×1011 p/s

Repetition rate 20 (16.7) Hz


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SPS

John Adams in PS control room

"High Rise" – Symbol of Fermilab

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

1972 "Main Ring"

(Proton Synchrotron)

Fermilab, USA

200  500 GeV (1976)

CRing = 6.28 km

1976 SPS

("SuperProton Synchrotron")

CERN

400 GeV


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

2. The Battle of Giants (contnd)

Three "Elephants" in HEP SPS, Main Ring, U-70


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3. Era of Colliding Beams

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

"… A word was first…"

1956, D.W.Kerst et al., – The First Idea

Fixed target experiment

Colliding beams


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3. Era of Colliding Beams (Contnd)

And what is a profit?

And what is a problem?

An example:

Fixed target E1 = 100 GeV/u

An equivalent:

Colliding beams (E1)kin = (Ekin)2 = 8.8 MeV/u

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Luminosity!


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3. Era of Colliding Beams (Contnd)

Colliding beams

Fixed target

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

What is "Luminosity"?

The experiment (accelerator) characteristics: parameter equal to number of events per sec when interaction cross sectiron is 1 cm2.

N1, N2 – particle number in colliding beams, S – beam cross

section (cm2), f – particle revolution frequency (s-1),

n0 - target density (cm-3), l – target thickness (cm),

dN/dt - particle flux bombarding the target (s-1).


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3. Era of Colliding Beams (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

Typical luminosity range 1025 1034 cm-2s-1

Integral luminosity:

L·dt

1 b = 10-24 cm2 1 b-1 = 1024 cm-2

1 pb-1 = 1·1036 cm-2, 1 fb-1 = 1·1039 cm-2.


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3. Era of Colliding Beams (Contnd)

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

G.Budker and A.Skrinsky

One day in the beginning

of the 60th…

(Novosibirsk)

…One head is good…

…but two ones are much better!


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3. Era of Colliding Beams (Contnd)

Storage rings

Synchrotron B2-S

electron beam "image" in synchrotron radiation (betatron resonance)

Pioneers of colliding beams

From the left to the right:

G.Kulipanov, S.Popov,

A.Skrinsky, G.Tumaykin

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

First e-e- collider VEP-1 (INP, Novosibirsk)

2 x 160 MeV, L = 31027 cm-2s-1


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1st ring

2nd ring

Wolfgang ("Pief") Panofsky

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

Meanwhile in California…

2 x 500 MeV

Princeton-Stanford

group:

G. K. O'Neill,

B.Richter et al.

The only remaining piece of the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider is a stainless steel bowl - the vacuum chamber in the machine's collision region.


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26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

1965 Simultaneous Triumph:

HEP Conference in Frascati (Italy)

Both groups reported of results of first experiments

performed at first e-e-colliders.

Test of QED at small distances:

xp  ħ

VEP-1: p  2E/c = 2160 MeV/c

x ~ (6.5810-16/2160106)31010 ~ 510-14 cm

A propos, today: LEP2  2E = 2110 GeV, x ~ 110-16 cm


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“- peak”

F2

40

30

20

10

0

m = 764  0.15 MeV

k = 0.59  0.15

 = 93  15 MeV

600 700 800 900 1000

2E [MeV]

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

VEPP-2 at INP, Novosibirsk

The First e+e- Collider 2 x 700 MeV, L = 21028 cm-2s-1

The Beginning of Physics at e+e- colliders


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AGS

Brookhaven

National

Laboratory:

SPEAR

SLAC

1974 Discovery of

-meson

(B.Richter et al.)

1974 Discovery of

J-meson

(S.Ting et al.)

Samuel Ting

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

J/, or The Story of One Discovery


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J/, or The Story of One Discovery (Contnd)

Stanford Positron-Electron

Asymmetric Ring, e+e-, 2 x 3 GeV

m(J/)  3.097 GeV

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)


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And what about The USSR?

AGS

SPEAR

U-70

VEPP-3

If one would

propose!

If one would

know!

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

J/, or The Story of One Discovery (Contnd)


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+

+

e+



e-

-

e-

~

~

e



Martin Perl Receives The Nobel Prize

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

The Next Success at SPEAR

1975 M.Perl

Discovery of-lepton




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3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

The Next Success at SPEAR (Contnd)

From the discovery of -leptonimmediately follows an evident conclusion of an associated neutrino existence.

+



+

e+



e-

-

First evidence for this third neutrino type came from the observation of missing energy and momentum in tau decays (analogous to the beta decay leading to the discovery of the e-neutrino).

e-

~

~

e



26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna


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?

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3. Era of Colliding Beams (contnd)

1974 – 1975

Quark model's progress


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Leon Lederman

Robert Wilson

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

4. The Battle of Giants continues

Success at "Main Ring" - the next achivement

of fixed target experiments

1977Discovery of  and ' mesons

1977Discovery of b-quark

1981 "Run for Lederman"


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?

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

4. The Battle of Giants continues

Discovery of b-quark was the next achivement of fixed target experiments


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4. The Battle of Giants continues

Robert Wilson's

sculpture

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna


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5. e+e- Colliders - The Step Forward

And how did you manage it?

_

1979 e+e- collider PETRA s = 14  46 GeV

The first experimental evidence for gluons

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna


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_

1979 e+e- collider PETRA s = 14  46 GeV

3 jet events - the first experimental evidence for gluons

h

?

Two h-jets event

Three h-jets event

h

e+

e+

h

h

e-

e-

g

h

h

h

h

h

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

5. e+e- Colliders - The Step Forward (Contnd)


4592638

26 January – 5 February2008 I.MeshkovParticle Acelerators in HEP

The VIth Winter Schoolof Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

The End of The Lecture I

Thank you for Today!


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