Stabilisation of the seriously ill child
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Stabilisation of the Seriously Ill Child. Linda Daniel PCC Network Educator January 2007. Aim: Review how a child might commonly present and the role of the healthcare practitioner in re-establishing physiologic stability. Objectives:

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Stabilisation of the seriously ill child

Stabilisation of the Seriously Ill Child.

Linda Daniel

PCC Network Educator

January 2007


Stabilisation of the seriously ill child

Aim: Review how a child might commonly present and the role of the healthcare practitioner in re-establishing physiologic stability.

  • Objectives:

  • Discuss the anatomical differences between an adult and child.

  • Using case scenarios as appropriate identify the types of problems that commonly cause a child to exhibit breathing problems.

  • Utilises a systematic approach to the assessment & management of the child with breathing problems.


Numbers of retrievals by age group 2005

Numbers of Retrievals by Age Group 2005

9

9

48

75


Retrievals by diagnosis 2005

Retrievals by Diagnosis 2005


Respiratory illness

Respiratory Illness

  • The most common cause of illness in infancy and childhood is acute disease of the respiratory tract.

  • The younger the child / infant the more susceptible they are to respiratory difficulties due to anatomical differences


Anatomical factors which impact upon the child s spontaneous ventilation

Anatomical factors which impact upon the child’s spontaneous ventilation

  • Airways are shorter and narrower, any increased mucous production results in a reduction in airway diameter. Consequently airway resistance increases.

  • Infants have large heads coupled with short trachea’s comprised of more compliant cartilage consequently airway occlusion may occur if the neck is hyper-extended.


Anatomical factors which impact upon the child s spontaneous ventilation1

Anatomical factors which impact upon the child’s spontaneous ventilation

  • The infants diaphragm inserts more horizontally in conjunction with their ribs, which causes lower rib retraction especially when supine .Infants are dependent on good diaphragmatic function


Anatomical factors which impact upon the child s spontaneous ventilation2

Anatomical factors which impact upon the child’s spontaneous ventilation

  • The cricoid ring is the narrowest part of the child’s airway.

  • As cuffed tubes lie in this position uncuffed tubes are preferred in children to minimise oedema and sub- glottic stenosis


Anatomical factors which impact upon the child s spontaneous ventilation3

Anatomical factors which impact upon the child’s spontaneous ventilation

  • The infant’s chest wall is more compliant / less rigid due to cartilaginous sternum and ribs.

  • The inter-costal muscles do not assist the infant in elevating the rib cage but act a a stabiliser.


Differences in the infants respiratory system compared to an adults

Differences in the infants respiratory system compared to an adults

Large amounts of lymphoid

tissue

Larynx higher –risk of aspiration

Large Tongue –

airway obstruction

Diaphragm & intercostal muscles have fewer type 1 muscle fibres - adaptions for sustained activity, hence tire earlier

Alveoli still developing in size and numbers (95%)

Greater oxygen consumption due to higher BMR

Airways shorter &

narrower encircled by

cricoid cartilage – less support

Mucous membranes loosely

attached airway oedema greater


Anatomical factors which impact upon the child s spontaneous ventilation4

Anatomical factors which impact upon the child’s spontaneous ventilation

  • The lack of pores of Kohn, Channels of Martin and Lambert which allow ventilation be it interalveolar, interbronchiolar and bronchioli-alveolar to occur distal to an obstruction means that infants are prone to atelectasis.


Differences in haemodynamic s compared with an adult

Differences in haemodynamic’s compared with an adult

  • Cardiac output (CO) measures the efficiency and performance of the heart.

  • CO = HR X SV

  • Volume loading achieves little improvement in cardiac performance unless the infant is clearly hypovolaemic

  • Infants are acutely sensitive to after-load due to myocardial immaturity and their inability to enhance contractile performance


Heart rate

Heart Rate

  • Crucial in infants & young children at maintaining adequate cardiac output

  • In basal conditions myocardial performance in the young is near maximal

  • Parasympathetic innervation is complete at birth unlike sympathetic consequently vagal induced bradycardia is inadequately balanced


Heart rate1

Heart Rate

  • Tachycardia shortens diastolic period which in turn reduces ventricular filling time


Causes of breathing problems in childhood

Causes of breathing problems in childhood.

Coma, convulsions raised ICP, poisoning

Anaphylaxis

Upper airway - epiglottitis,

Croup, foreign body

Neuromuscular disorders

Empyema

Pneumothorax

Pulmonary oedema

asthma,

,bronchiolitis

pneumonia

Diabetic ketoacidosis, Peritonitis abdominal distension


Normal values

Normal values


Assessment airway look listen and feel

Assessment Airway Look, Listen and Feel

  • Vocalisations suggest airway patency

  • Noisy “ bubbly” breathing, suggest secretions requiring clearance, consider fatigue or depressed conscious level

  • Snoring respiratory noises suggest partial obstruction of the airway due to depressed conscious level

  • Inspiratory wheeze points to upper airway obstruction

  • Expiratory wheeze points to lower airway obstruction


Assessment airway

AssessmentAirway

  • Stridor suggests upper airway obstruction - croup

  • Grunting is exhalation against a partially closed glottis to increase end expiratory pressure

  • Opening manoeuvres should be used in a child with a compromised airway – consider use of adjuncts (Guedal, nasopharngeal or intubation)

  • N.B. A child with a compromised airway may quickly become obstructed if distressed


Airway adjuncts sizing

Airway Adjuncts & Sizing

  • From the incisors to the angle of the mandible

Measure from the tip of the nose to the tragus of the ear


Assessment breathing effort efficacy effects

Assessment Breathing – Effort, Efficacy Effects

  • Respiratory rate and pattern, recession/ accessory muscles, nasal flaring , tracheal tug.

  • Chest expansion, abdominal excursion, oxygen saturations, equal air entry.

  • Physiological effects upon heart rate, skin colour mental status

  • Hypoxic tachycardia may be exacerbated by anxiety and fever. Severe or prolonged hypoxia leads to pre terminal sign of bradycardia


Assessment breathing effort efficacy effects1

Assessment Breathing – Effort, Efficacy Effects

  • Tachyapnoea indicates increased ventilation requirements associated with lung or airway disease or metabolic acidosis.

  • A slow respiratory rate indicates fatigue, cerebral depression or pre-terminal state.

  • Hypoxia produces vasoconstriction and skin pallor.

  • Cyanosis is a pre-terminal sign of hypoxia, with the exception of cyanotic heart disease


Bag valve mask ventilation

Bag Valve – Mask Ventilation

  • If hypoventilating with slow respiratory rate or weak effort support is required via bag-valve mask device

  • Face mask application with one hand as head tilt-chin lift manoeuvre is performed

  • Avoid pressure on the soft tissues of the neck which could cause laryngeal/ tracheal compression


Sizing placement of face masks

Sizing & Placement of Face Masks

  • The face mask size is selected to provide an airtight seal

  • The mask should extend from the bridge of the nose to the cleft of the chin enveloping nose & mouth but avoiding compression of the eyes


Rapid sequence induction

Rapid Sequence Induction

  • Prepare intubation equipment

  • Endotracheal tubes diameter size

  • < 1year 3.0, 3.5, 4.0

  • > 1yr = age / 4 + 4) i.e. 4yrs/4 +4 = 5.0 plus 4.5 & 5.5


Assessment circulation

Assessment Circulation

  • Heart rate, pulse volume, capillary refill, peripheral temp and colour (BP -compensated in child)

  • IV or IO access X2 & bloods

  • Don’t forget glucose 5mls/kg 10% dextrose

  • Resuscitation – Adrenaline 10mcg/kg (0.1ml/kg of 1:10,000)

Intraosseous placement


Assessment circulation1

Assessment Circulation

  • If signs of shock - fluid bolus 10 – 20 ml/kg 0.9% saline.

  • The 1year old is classed as 10kg

  • Estimated weight > 1yr = (age + 4) X 2

  • Start inotropes after 60ml/kg administered in conjunction with volume replacement


Infusion calculations dobutamine

Infusion Calculations -Dobutamine

  • Vial 250 mg / 20mls add to 30 mls of 5% dextrose to give total volume of 50mls

  • Use formula “What you want” X mls

    “What you’ve got”

  • e.g. 5 kg child prescribed 10 mcg/kg/min = “What you want”


Infusion calculations dobutamine1

Infusion Calculations -Dobutamine

  • How to calculate “What you’ve got”

  • Divide 250mg by 50mls = 5 mg/ml

  • Multiply 5 mg by 1000 = 5000 mcg/ ml

  • Divide 5000 mcgs by weight of child (5000 / 5kg) = 1000 micrograms / kg

  • 1 ml = 1000 micrograms/kg

  • Divide 1000 by 60 = micrograms / kg /min

  • 1 ml = 16.6 micrograms /kg/min

  • Therefore “What you want” X mls

    “What you’ve got”

    10 X 1 = 0.6 mls / hour

    16.6

  • To administer the prescription 10mcg/kg/min to a 5kg child

    Infuse at a rate of 0.6 ml/hour


Respiratory assessment

Respiratory Assessment

  • Disability – Conscious level, behaviour

    • Normal, lively, irritable , lethargic.

    • AVPU / GCS pupillary signs & posture

  • Exposure

    • Rash , fever

    • Consider anaphylaxis


Summary

Summary

  • The most common cause of illness in infancy and childhood is acute disease of the respiratory tract.

  • The younger the child / infant the more susceptible they are to respiratory difficulties due to anatomical differences

  • Adopting a systematic approach to the stabilisation of seriously ill children will allow practitioners to approach their care with confidence.


Drug calculations

Drug Calculations

  • Calculate a morphine infusion for a 3.5 Kg infant at 20mcg/kg/hr (3.5 mg in 50mls dex 5%)

  • Calculate an adrenaline infusion for a 8kg child at 0.08mcg/kg/min (5mg in 50mls dex 5%)

  • Alprostadil 50nannograms /kg/min for a 3kg infant (225mcg in 50 mls 5% dex)


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