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Early National Period Jefferson to Jackson PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Early National Period Jefferson to Jackson. VUS.6a-b. Political developments in the Early National Period. After George Washington’s presidency ended in the late 1790s, the first political parties emerged…

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Early National Period Jefferson to Jackson

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Early national period jefferson to jackson l.jpg

Early National PeriodJefferson to Jackson


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Political developments in the Early National Period

  • After George Washington’s presidency ended in the late 1790s, the first political parties emerged…

    • The Federalists--led by Alexander Hamilton believed in a strong national government and an industrial economy. They were supported by bankers and business leaders from the Northeast

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  • The Democratic-Republicans--led by Thomas Jefferson, believed in a weak national government and an agricultural economy. They were supported by farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South.

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Election of 1800

  • The election was won by Thomas Jefferson (DR) who defeated John Adams (F) and Aaron Burr (DR).

  • **The importance is this is the first American presidential election in which power was peacefully transferred from one political party to another.**

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Key Supreme Court decisions

  • Several decisions of the Supreme Court led by Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia established the power of the federal courts to declare laws unconstitutional

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  • Marbury v Madison--established the principle of JUDICIAL REVIEW

  • McCulloch v Maryland--prohibited states from taxing agencies of the federal government--said “the power to tax is the power to destroy”

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Louisiana Purchase

  • As President, Thomas Jefferson in 1803 purchased the huge Louisiana Territory from France. This nearly doubled the size of the United States overnight.

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  • Jefferson authorized the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the new territories that lay west of the Mississippi River.

  • Sacajawea, an Indian woman, served as guide and translator

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War of 1812

  • The American victory over the British in the War of 1812 produced an American claim to the Oregon Territory and increased American migration into Florida.

  • Florida was later acquired by treaty from Spain. (Adams-Onis Treaty)

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Monroe Doctrine

  • Issued in 1823 by President James Monroe

  • stated--The American continent should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers

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  • Nations in the Western hemisphere were inherently different from those in Europe, republics rather than monarchies

  • The United States would not interfere in European affairs

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  • The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.

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Westward movement

  • American settlers poured westward from coastal areas into the Midwest, Southwest, and Texas, seeking economic opportunity in the form of land to own and farm

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  • American migration into Texas, led to armed revolt against Mexican rule and a famous battle at the Alamo, in which a band of Texans fought to the last man against a vastly superior force. The Texans’ eventual victory over Mexican forces brought Texas into the Union

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  • The American victory in the Mexican War during the 1840s led to the acquisition of an enormous territory that included the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and parts of Colorado, and New Mexico

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  • The growth of railroads and canals helped the growth of an industrial economy and supported the westward movement of settlers.

  • Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin led to the spread of the slavery-based “cotton kingdom” in the Deep South

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Impact on the Native Americans

  • The belief that it was America’s “Manifest Destiny” to spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific provided political support for territorial expansion. The First Americans (Indians) were the ones forced to suffer in the move westward by Americans.

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  • During this period of westward migration, the American Indians were repeatedly defeated in violent conflicts with settlers and soldiers and forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands

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  • They were either forced to march far away from their homes (the “Trail of Tears”, where several tribes were relocated from Atlantic Coast states to Oklahoma) or confined to reservations.

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  • The forcible removal of the American Indians from their lands would continue throughout the remainder of the 19th century as settlers continued to move west following the Civil War.

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Jacksonian Era

  • Terms to know

    • Aristocracy--a government in which power is given to those believed to be best qualified

    • Aristocrat--a member of an aristocracy

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  • Presidential veto--powers granted to the President to prevent passage of legislation passed by Congress

  • “Spoils System”--the practice of using public offices to benefit members of the victorious party

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Jacksonian Era-Political participation

  • Expansion of Democracy--the number of eligible voters increased as previous property qualifications were eliminated. Prior to the election of 1828, the majority of the American people had been satisfied to have “aristocrats” select their President.

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  • By 1828, Americans began to see Americans as equals and were more eager to participate in the electoral process. Delegates from states chose candidates for President at nominating conventions

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  • Once elected, Presidents like Andrew Jackson employed the spoils system to reward supporters with government jobs. This practice will continue until a President is killed by a man who did not receive a job he believed he deserved (Garfield, 1881).

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Bank of the United States

  • Jackson distrusted the Bank as an unjust tool of the eastern elite. He vetoed the rechartering of the Bank in 1832. Jackson’s Bank veto was the central issue in the election of 1832. Henry Clay, the National Republican candidate supported the Bank

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  • Jackson’s re-election brought an end to the Bank of the US. Jackson began to withdraw the governments money from the Bank and he deposited it in select state banks. His actions caused a major economic depression and led to the Panic of 1837.

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  • Panic of 1837—the economic situation that resulted from reckless speculation that led to bank failures and dissatisfaction with the use of state banks (also called pet banks) as depositories for public funds

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