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Reading assignments: biological control . van Klinken, R. and Raghu, S. 2006. A scientific approach to agent selection. Australian Journal of Entomology 45 : 253-258.

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reading assignments biological control
Reading assignments: biological control
  • van Klinken, R. and Raghu, S. 2006. A scientific approach to agent selection. Australian Journal of Entomology 45: 253-258.
  • Denslow, J., and D’Antonio, C. 2005. After bio-control: assessing indirect effects of insect releases. Biological Control 35:307-318.
  • Kirby et al. 2000. Biological control of leafy spurge with introduced flea beetles (Apthona spp.). Journal of Range Management 53(3): 305-308.
slide2

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods
  • Least public opposition
  • Number of success stories
  • Difficulty locating enemy
  • Non-target effects
    • Most likely a problem when the invasive species has closely related plants in the invaded area
    • Monitor non-targets
slide3

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
slide4

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • Agricultural impact
      • Impact to natural areas
      • Toxicity
      • Beneficial characteristics
      • Relatedness to native species
      • Origin
      • Extent of invasion
slide5

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • Agricultural impact
      • Impact to natural areas
      • Toxicity
      • Beneficial characteristics
      • Relatedness to native species
      • Origin
      • Extent of invasion
      • McClay, A. S. 1989. Selection of suitable target weeds for classical biological control in Alberta.  AECV89-RI. Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, Alberta, Canada.
slide6

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • Agricultural impact
      • Impact to natural areas
      • Toxicity
      • Beneficial characteristics
      • Relatedness to native species
      • Origin
      • Extent of invasion
      • McClay, A. S. 1989. Selection of suitable target weeds for classical biological control in Alberta.  AECV89-RI. Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, Alberta, Canada.
      • Peschken, D. P and A. S. McClay. 1995. Picking the target – a revision of McClay’s scoring system to determine the suitability of a weed for classical biological control, pp. 137-143. In Delfosse E. S. and R. R. Scott (eds.). Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Canterbury NZ.
slide7

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.
      • economic losses (light to very severe) 0-30 pts
        • Additional points:
          • Size of the infested area
          • expected spread
          • Toxicity
          • Available means of control
          • Economic justification.
slide8

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.
      • economic losses
      • Biological elements
        • Geographic origin: more points for non-US weeds
slide9

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.
      • economic losses
      • Biological elements
        • Geographic origin: more points for non-N. Am. weeds
        • Habitat stability: more points for stable habitats (rangelands VS croplands)
slide10

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.
      • economic losses
      • Biological elements
        • Geographic origin: more points for non-N. Am. weeds
        • Habitat stability: more points for stable habitats (rangelands VS croplands)
        • Points added for absence of close native relatives
slide11

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.
      • economic losses
      • Biological elements
        • Geographic origin: more points for non-N. Am. weeds
        • Habitat stability: more points for stable habitats (rangelands VS croplands)
        • Points added for absence of close native relatives
slide12

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.
      • economic losses
      • Biological elements
      • Other means: decision of scientists, survey of land managers and weed biologists, political pressures, perceived need, mandate in legislation
slide13

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
slide14

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005. Project Number: 0211-22000-006-00
slide15

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
slide16

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
slide17

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
slide18

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
slide19

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
          • presence and abundance related to climate
slide20

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
          • presence and abundance related to climate
          • phenology of control agents and hosts
slide21

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
          • presence and abundance related to climate
          • phenology of control agents and hosts
          • type and level of damage on targets
slide22

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
          • presence and abundance related to climate
          • phenology of control agents and hosts
          • type and level of damage on targets
          • Oviposition and feeding substrates
slide23

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
          • presence and abundance related to climate
          • phenology of control agents and hosts
          • type and level of damage on targets
          • Oviposition and feeding substrates
          • overwintering sites
slide24

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.
          • presence and abundance related to climate
          • phenology of control agents and hosts
          • type and level of damage on targets
          • Oviposition and feeding substrates
          • overwintering sites
          • Host range tests: primary and closely related hosts, critical hosts
slide25

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent
      • Climate modeling to match sources to target populations
slide26

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent
      • Climate modeling to match sources to target populations
      • Introduction of bio-control agents to quarantine sites in US for further testing
slide27

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005
    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)
      • Literature review to identify promising species
      • Field surveys in South America
      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent
      • Climate modeling to match sources to target populations
      • Introduction of bio-control agents to quarantine sites in US for further testing
      • Progress: have ID’d several agents and host species lists for each invasive plant. Prioritization of agents next priority. Import and testing in US projected for 2007-2008.
slide28

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
      • Laboratory rearing:
        • Easier, more cost effective, less mortality, more insects?
        • Not ‘hardened’ to environmental conditions, lower success in releases
slide29

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
      • Laboratory rearing:
        • Easier, more cost effective, less mortality, more insects?
        • Not ‘hardened’ to environmental conditions, lower success in releases
      • Field rearing:
        • More difficult, more expensive, fewer insects
        • Site selection is important (high quality stand of target plant)
slide30

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
      • Laboratory rearing:
        • Easier, more cost effective, less mortality, more insects?
        • Not ‘hardened’ to environmental conditions, lower success in releases
      • Field rearing:
        • More difficult, more expensive, fewer insects
        • Site selection is important (high quality stand of target plant)
      • ‘quality’ probably outweighs ‘quantity’ in bio-control releases
slide31

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
    • Release the biocontrol agent
slide32

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
    • Release the biocontrol agent
      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989).
slide33

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
    • Release the biocontrol agent
      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989)
      • Success affected by climate, size of release, number and timing of releases, predators, weather conditions
      • Improve success by releasing field-reared agents, matching climate, selecting release site carefully (high density of target plants, few predators)
slide34

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
    • Release the biocontrol agent
      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989)
      • Success affected by climate, size of release, number and timing of releases, predators, weather conditions
      • Improve success by releasing field-reared agents, matching climate, selecting release site carefully (high density of target plants, few predators)
      • Caged releases VS open field releases
slide35

Management

    • Control
  • Biological methods: How to implement?
    • Identify appropriate target weeds
    • Identify possible bio-control agents
    • Rear the bio-control agent
    • Release the biocontrol agent
      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989)
      • Success affected by climate, size of release, number and timing of releases, predators, weather conditions
      • Improve success by releasing field-reared agents, matching climate, selecting release site carefully (high density of target plants, few predators)
      • Caged releases VS open field releases
      • e.g. Kirby et al 2000: released 80 beetles in 1989, 1000 beetles in 1990. Open release, colonization was successful.
slide38

Management

    • Control
  • Underlying socioeconomic issues
  • Introductions = $$$
    • Many (most) NIS introduced intentionally
slide39

Management

    • Control
  • Underlying socioeconomic issues
  • Introductions = $$$
    • Many (most) NIS introduced intentionally
    • Concern about control (esp biological control)
    • Other economic benefits of invasives – e.g. Purple Loosestrife makes good honey!
slide40

Management

    • Control
  • Underlying socioeconomic issues
  • Introductions = $$$
  • Public sentiment

Southwest Willow flycatcher

Endangered species;

Nests in Tamarisk

(nest success lower in Tamarisk

Than in native vegetation but

Still a concern)

slide41

Management

    • Control
  • Underlying socioeconomic issues
  • Introductions = $$$
  • Public sentiment
  • Fear of non-native species
    • IUCN prohibits release of NIS (non-indigenous species) in natural areas… this would mean no biological control
    • Concern about non-target effects
slide42

Management

    • Control
  • Underlying socioeconomic issues
  • Introductions = $$$
  • Public sentiment
  • Fear of non-native species
    • IUCN prohibits release of NIS (non-indigenous species) in natural areas… this would mean no biological control
    • Concern about non-target effects
slide43

Management

    • Eradication

Feasibility

slide44

Management

    • Eradication
  • Feasibility:
  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal
slide45

Management

    • Eradication
  • Feasibility:
  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal
  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore
slide46

Management

    • Eradication
  • Feasibility:
  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal
  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore
  • Widespread support
slide47

Management

    • Eradication
  • Feasibility:
  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal
  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore
  • Widespread support
  • Prevent re-invasion
slide48

Management

    • Eradication
  • Feasibility:
  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal
  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore
  • Widespread support
  • Prevent re-invasion
  • Low populations
slide49

Management

    • Eradication
  • Feasibility:
  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal
  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore
  • Widespread support
  • Prevent re-invasion
  • Low populations
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