USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
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USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES. SUBJECT GERUND ‘ Flying aeroplanes could be dangerous’. REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE ‘ Not knowing what to do, I … ’. DEFINING THE WHOLE ACTION ‘She sat there , waiting ’. IT + ADJECTIVE + TO IN SUBJECT POSITION ‘ It is dangerous to

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USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

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Use of gerunds and infinitives

USE OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

SUBJECT GERUND

‘Flying aeroplanes

could be dangerous’

REDUCTION OF THE

ADVERB CLAUSE

‘Not knowing what to do, I… ’

DEFINING THE WHOLE

ACTION

‘She sat there,waiting’

IT + ADJECTIVE + TO

IN SUBJECT POSITION

‘It is dangerous to

fly aeroplanes’

USING A POSSESSIVE

‘I was surprised by his going.’

‘His going surprised me.’

REDUCTION OF THE

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

‘The man living next-door is...’

PASSIVE GERUND

IT + ADJECTIVE OF ☻ TO

‘It was stupid of you to let

others use you.’

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER

A PASSIVE PREDICATE

‘The castle

is said tobe haunted.’

PASSIVE INFINITIVE

PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER

A PASSIVE PREDICATE

‘Picasso is believed to

havebeen a genius.’

VERBS OF PERCEPTION

‘I saw her crying.’

I saw her cry.’

CAUSATIVE VERBS

Have / get sth done

Get ☻ to do sth

Be made to do, Make ☻ do sth

PAST INFINITIVE

TOO adj. TOO

NOT ENOUGH adj. TO

‘It was too hot to drink’

‘It wasn’t cold enough to drink’’


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SUBJECT GERUND

HOME PAGE

It is possible to convert the first sentence into a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the next sentence in place of ‘THIS’

THIS

IS DANGEROUS

HMM, WHAT…

IS DANGEROUS?

THE SUBJECT

PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE

BE + ADJ

PEOPLE FLY

AEROPLANES.

THIS

AND

IS DANGEROUS.

The subject pronoun ‘THIS’ stands for the previous

sentence, ‘PEOPLE FLY AEROPLANES’


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SUBJECT GERUND

HOME PAGE

It is possible to convert the first sentence into a Gerund Phrase and use it as a subject in the next sentence in place of ‘THIS’

THIS

IS DANGEROUS

THE SUBJECT

PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE

BE + ADJ

This is possible in two ways.

NOW CLICK TWICE!

PEOPLE FLY

AEROPLANES.

THIS

IS DANGEROUS.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SUBJECT GERUND

DON’T YOU AGREE?!

HOME PAGE

PEOPLE FLY

AEROPLANES.

FLYING AEROPLANES

FLYING

THIS

IS DANGEROUS.

Now CLICK and REPLACE ‘THIS’ with the new Gerund Subject.

If the subject in the first clause denotes a general group,…

…OMIT the subject,...

… and ADD a gerund.

The Phrase ‘FLYING AEROPLANES’ is ready to be used as a Gerund Subject

in the second clause.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

HOME PAGE

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to link to another

use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

THERE IS YET ANOTHER WAY TO USE A SENTENCE IN THE SUBJECT POSITION

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

HOME PAGE

PEOPLE FLY

AEROPLANES

THIS

IS DANGEROUS

TO

IT

THE SUBJECT

PRONOUN

‘THIS’ STANDS

FOR THE

FIRST

CLAUSE

PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE

BE + ADJ

If the subject in the first clause denotes a general group,…

IT IS DANGEROUS TO FLY AEROPLANES

…and if there is a predicative adjective in the second clause,…

…OMIT the subject,...

… and LINK the remaining predicate ‘FLY AEROPLANES’ to the predicative adjective with ‘TO’..

…START the predicative adjective with ‘IT’


Use of gerunds and infinitives

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

HOME PAGE

CLICK TO SEE THE RULE

IT IS

TO

ADJECTIVE

EVENT

IT IS

CLEVER

TO

SAVE SOME MONEY

IT IS

STUPID

NOT TO

SAVE SOME MONEY

IT IS

EXCITING

VISIT OTHER COUNTRIES

TO

IT IS

BORING

BE ABLE TO TRAVEL

NOT TO

IT IS

EAT IN MODERATION

REASONABLE

TO

IT IS

EAT IN MODERATION

UNREASONABLE

NOT TO


Use of gerunds and infinitives

HOME PAGE

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to link to another

use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

HOME PAGE

CLICK TO SEE THE RULE

OF ☻ TO

IT IS

ADJECTIVE

EVENT

IT WAS

CONSIDERATE

HELP US DO THE WORK

OF HIM TO

IT WAS

INCONSIDERATE

HELP US DO THE WORK

OF HIM NOT TO

IT WAS

STUPID

WAIT OUTSIDE

OF US TO

IT WAS

STUPID

WAIT INDOORS

OF US NOT TO

IT WAS

WEAR THE SHIRT INSIDE OUT

FUNNY

OF ME TO

IT WAS

WEAR THE T-SHIRT PROPERLY

FUNNY

OF ME NOT TO

SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

SUBJECT GERUND, IT + INFINITIVE

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

She didn’t come on time, which was irresponsible.

HER

It was irresponsible of her

to come late.

It is crucial if you are in the right place and at the right time.

PLACE

Being in the right place

and in the right time is crucial.

There is no point in going on discussing this issue.

IT

It is pointless to go

on discussing this topic.

People need to develop effective listening skills.

SKILLS

Developing effective listening skills

is necessary.

You danced in women’s garments, which was very funny.

IT

It was funny of you

to dance in women’s clothes.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SUBJECT GERUND

HOME PAGE

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to link to another

use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

VERBS OF PERCEPTION

SEE......................................................

HEAR STHHAPPEN

FEEL....................................................

SEE.................................................................

HEAR STH HAPPENING

FEEL..............................................................

You witness the whole action.

You witness only a part of the whole action.

AND I BELIEVE I MUST TELL YOU WHAT IT WAS ALL ABOUT

B

A

I HEARD THEM SPEAKING ABOUT YOU

Click and match!

B

THEN, THEY WENT SOMEWHERE ELSE TO GOSSIP

I HEARD THEM SPEAK ABOUT YOU

A

JUST BEFORE HE PHONED TO TELL HER HE WAS TOO ILL TO GO OUT THAT DAY

A

A

TESS HAD SEEN HER BOYFRIEND KISS A GIRL

Click and match!

B

WHEN SHE ENTERED THE ROOM TO SAY ‘SURPRISE’

TESS SAW HER BOYFRIEND KISSING A GIRL

B

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

Because she was crying, we stopped minding our own business.

WE

crying we stopped

When we saw her

to look at her.

We watched the train until it disappeared in the skyline.

WE

We watched the train disappear

in the horizon.

I saw a man who slipped a secret note in the president’s pocket.

NOTE

slip a secret note

I saw a man

in the president’s pocket.

When I woke, my mother’s snoring was audible.

MUM

heard mum snoring.

When I woke I

I was unable to sleep as mum kept snoring until the crack of dawn.

I

I heard mum snore

the night out.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

HOME PAGE

Return to the home page

to link to another

use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES

ANIMATED RULE

HOME PAGE

IT IS

TOO

ADJECTIVE

TO

EVENT

IT IS

TOO

DANGEROUS

APPROACH

TO

IT IS

NOT

ADJECTIVE

ENOUGH

TO

EVENT

TO

IT IS

NOT

SAFE

APPROACH

ENOUGH


Use of gerunds and infinitives

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

HOME PAGE

IT IS

TOO

ADJECTIVE

TO

EVENT

IT IS

NOT

ADJECTIVE

ENOUGH

TO

EVENT

IT IS

TOO

FAR

TO

REACH

IT IS

NOT

CLOSE

ENOUGH

REACH

TO

CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES

IT IS

TOO

TO

SOLVE

COMPLICATED

IT IS

NOT

TO

SOLVE

SIMPLE

ENOUGH


Use of gerunds and infinitives

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES

ANIMATED RULE

HOME PAGE

IT IS

TOO

ADJECTIVE

TO

EVENT

FOR ☻

IT IS

TOO

COSTLY

BUY

TO

FOR Jim

IT IS

NOT

ADJECTIVE

ENOUGH

FOR ☻

TO

EVENT

FOR Jim

TO

IT IS

NOT

CHEAP

BUY

ENOUGH


Use of gerunds and infinitives

IT + INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT

HOME PAGE

IT IS

TOO

ADJECTIVE

TO

EVENT

FOR ☻

IT IS

NOT

ADJECTIVE

ENOUGH

FOR ☻

TO

EVENT

SHE IS

TOO

STUBBORN

TO

CONVINCE

FOR US

SHE IS

NOT

LENIENT

ENOUGH

CONVINCE

FOR US

TO

CLICK TO SEE MORE EXAMPLES

I AM

TOO

FOR YOU

TO

BE A FRIEND

BAD

I AM

NOT

FOR YOU

TO

BE A FRIEND

GOOD

ENOUGH

SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

IT + INFINITIVE

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

It was such fine weather that he couldn’t stay indoors.

GOOD

was too good to

The weather

stay indoors.

The flight was so bumpy that the baby couldn’t sleep.

SMOOTH

was not smooth enough for

The flight

the baby to sleep.

My essay was so incoherent that the teacher couldn’t understand it.

TOO

too incoherent for the

teacher to understand.

My essay was

The steak was so tough that the old man couldn’t chew it.

NOT

was not tender enough for

The steak

the old man to chew.

The food was so delicious that Carol couldn’t stop eating.

YUMMY

too yummy for Carol to

stop.

The food was


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

SUBJECT GERUND, IT + INFINITIVE

HOME PAGE

Return to the home page

to link to another

use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE

AFTER

HOME PAGE

AFTER

DOING

THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC

After checking if all the windows were shut,

I left the house.

The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be

the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted.

Who checked all the windows in the RAC?

Main Clause (MC)

FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)

AfterIHADcheckEDif all the windows were shut, I left the house.

Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form

After I had checked... → After checking...

CHANGES

Omit the Subject in the RAC

After I had checked... → After checking...


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

AFTER

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Smith

After Smith had listened to her,

he could better understand why

she had behaved so.

listen

listening

ADD A GERUND!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

After Smith had listened to her, he could better understand why she had behaved so.

After listening to her, Smith could better understand why she had behaved so.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE

BEFORE

HOME PAGE

BEFORE

DOING

THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC

Beforeleavingthe house,

I had checked if all the windows were shut.

The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be

the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted.

Who left the house in theRAC?

Main Clause (MC)

FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)

BeforeIleFTthe house, Ihad checked if all the windows were shut.

Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form

Before I left → Before leaving...

CHANGES

Omit the Subject in the RAC

BeforeIleft... → Before leaving...


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

BEFORE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Smith

Before Smith could understand why

she had behaved that way, he

had listened to her twice.

understanding

understand

ADD A GERUND!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

Before Smith could understand why she had behaved that way, he had listened to her.

Before understanding why she had behaved so, Smith had listened to her twice.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE

BECAUSE

HOME PAGE

BECAUSE

DOING

THE SUBJECT OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE DROPS WITH THE ADVERB ‘BECAUSE’, AND THE VERB TENSE ALTERS INTO A GERUND TO REDUCE THE ADVERB CLAUSE TO A MODIFYING CLAUSE.

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC

NOT waning to offend him,

Amber weighed her words carefully.

The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted.

Who didn’t want to

offend him in the RAC?

Main Clause (MC)

FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)

BECAUSEAmberDIDn’t wantto offend him, SHE weighed her words carefully.

Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form

Because Amber didn’twant to... → NOT wanting to...

CHANGES

Omit the Subject and the adverb ‘BECAUSE’ in the RAC

Because Amber didn’t want to..., she... → Not wanting to..., Amber...


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

BECAUSE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

Janet

HOME PAGE

Because Janet had nowhere to go,

she spent the whole night in an abandoned

car.

Having

have

OMIT BECAUSE!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!

ADD A GERUND!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

Because Janet had nowhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car.

Having nowhere to go, Janet spent the night in an abandoned car.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

BECAUSE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Janet

Because Janet didn’t have anywhere to

go, she spent the night in an

abandoned car.

not have

Not having

OMIT BECAUSE!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!

ADD A GERUND!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

Because Janet didn’t have anywhere to go, she spent the night in an abandoned car.

Not having anywhere to go, Janet spent the night in an abandoned car.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

BECAUSE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Craig

Because Craig is a snob, he looks

down on other people.

be

Being

OMIT BECAUSE!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

ADD A GERUND!

Because Craig is a snob, he looks down on other people.

Being a snob, Craig looks down on other people.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

BECAUSE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Hugh

Because Hugh was asked a most

inappropriate question, he was at

a loss for words.

be

Being

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE PREDICATE!

ADD A GERUND!

OMIT BECAUSE!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

Because Hugh was asked a most inappropriate question, he was at a loss for words.

Being asked a most inappropriate question, Hugh was at a loss for words.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE

SINCE

HOME PAGE

SINCE

DOING

THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC

Since moving to the big city,

Heather has made many new friends.

The subjects of both the RAC and the MC

must be the same so the subject in the

RAC can be omitted.

Who moved to the

big city theRAC?

Main Clause (MC)

FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)

Sinceshe movEDto the big city, HEATHERhas made many new friends.

Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form

Since she moved... → Since moving...

CHANGES

Omit the Subject in the RAC

Since she moved... → Since moving...


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

SINCE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Cheryl

Since Cheryl met him, she has

changed beyond recognition.

meeting

meet

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!

ADD A GERUND!

Since Cheryl met him, she has changed beyond compare.

Since meeting him, Cheryl has changed beyond compare.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

REDUCTION OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE

WHILE

HOME PAGE

WHILE

DOING

THE REDUCTION OF THE SUBJECT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE VERB TENSE INTO THE GERUND FORM CHANGE THE ADVERB CLAUSE INTO A MODIFYING PHRASE

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE (MODIFYING PHRASE) RAC

W h i l e f i s h ing, T o m f e l l a s l e e p .

Main Clause (MC)

The subjects of both the RAC and the MC must be

the same so the subject in the RAC can be omitted.

Who was fishing in the RAC?

FULL FORM (ADVERB CLAUSE)

WhileTomWASfishing, he fell asleep.

Omit the tense of the verb. Put it in Gerund (+ing) form

While Tom was fishing... → While fishing...

CHANGES

Omit the Subject in the RAC and make it definite in the MC

WhileTomwas fishing..., he...→While fishing..., Tom...


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CONVERSION PRACTICE

WHILE

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

HOME PAGE

Chantal

While Chantal was daydreaming in

class, she fell asleep.

daydream

daydreaming

OMIT THE SUBJECT!

OMIT THE TENSE OF THE VERB!

ADD A GERUND!

MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE DEFINITE!

While Chantal was daydreaming in class, she fell asleep.

While daydreaming in class, Chantal fell asleep.

SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

He prayed, and then he asked her for a dance.

HER

before asking her

He prayed

for a dance.

Because Wilma was a working mother, she was so busy.

A

Being a working mother,

Wilma was so busy.

The child was flipping through the pages, when he found the note.

THE

while flipping through the

The child found the note

pages.

Carla panicked in the exam because she didn’t have enough time.

NOT

Not having enough time,

Carla panicked in the exam.

Hilary has been unable to sleep since she unearthed the secret.

THE

Since unearthing the secret

Hilary’s been sleepless.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

HOME PAGE

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use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND

IN SUBJECT POSITION

HOME PAGE

S E N T E N C E O R D E R

NEXT SENTENCE

JOHN MOVED TO A VILLAGE

THIS

SURPRISED US

CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE

CLICK!

JOHN’S MOVINGTO A VILLAGE

JOHN MOVED TO A VILLAGE

Verb+ing

Subject+’s

S E N T E N C E O R D E R

JOHN’S MOVINGTO A VILLAGE

SURPRISED US

SURPRISED US

S U B J E C T


Use of gerunds and infinitives

POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND

IN SUBJECT POSITION

HOME PAGE

S E N T E N C E O R D E R

NEXT SENTENCE

TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION

EVERYONE IS

TALKING ABOUT

THIS

CONVERSION INTO NOUN CLAUSE

CLICK!

TRACY’S HANDINGIN HER RESIGNATION

TRACY HAS HANDED IN HER RESIGNATION

Verb+ing

Subject+’s

S E N T E N C E O R D E R

TRACY’S HANDING IN HER RESIGNATION

EVERYONE IS

TALKING ABOUT

EVERYONE IS

TALKING ABOUT

O B J E C T

SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

Paula left Tommy, and this has scathed him.

HAS

Paula’s leaving Tommy has

hurt him deeply.

We were outraged by the fact that Velma had betrayed us.

SHOCKED

Velma's betraying us shocked

everyone.

He keeps insulting everyone, which is inexcusable.

HIS

his insulting everyone.

We can’t excuse

Laureen got admitted to Harvard, and we celebrated this.

GETTING

Laureen’s getting admitted to Harvard.

We celebrated

Zach keeps bunking off work, which is intolerable.

OFF

Zach’s bunking off work

We can’t tolerate

all the time.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

POSSESSIVES MODIFYING A GERUND

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use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CAUSATIVE VERBS

WITH ZERO INFINITIVE

MAKE ☻DO sth

TO FORCE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AGAINST THEIR WILL

HAVE ☻DO sth

TO PERSUADE sb TO DO sth

TO PAY AND ASK sb TO DO sth

GET ☻TODO sth

TO PERSUADE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING AFTER SOME DIFFICULTY

TIM HAD HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE.

B

A

It was not easy, but Tim’s mother, at last, saw a point in buying him a motorbike.

B

TIM MADE HIS MOTHER BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE.

Tim gave his mom a reason to buy him a motorbike, and she said yes.

C

TIM GOT HIS MOTHER TO BUY HIM A MOTOTORBIKE.

A

C

Tim was so hard on his mother that she had to buy that motorbike.

She wanted him to stay longer, but she couldn’t bend him to her will.

have him stay longer.

HAVE

She couldn’t

SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

WITH ZERO INFINITIVE

CAUSATIVE VERBS

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

We were forced to walk barefoot all the way.

US

made us walk barefoot

They

all the way.

The teacher failed to achieve silence in the classroom.

BE

get the students to be

silent.

The teacher couldn’t

Zoey will call an electrician to repair the damage

REPAIR

have an electrician repair

Zoey will

the damage.

You can’t influence me to play truant again.

TO

get me to play truant

You can’t

again.

Even a faintest smile of hers would be enough for us to do what she wanted.

have us do what she

US

wanted even with a smallest smile.

She could


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CAUSATIVE VERBS

GET sthDONE

TO MANAGE SOMETHING OFTEN DIFFICULT

TO HAVE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING FOR YOU

HAVE sthDONE

TO SUFFER FROM SOMETHING UNFORTUNATE

MATCHING

CAUSATIVE SENTENCE

GET STH DONE

GET STH DONE

B

A

My arm got broken.

I’VE GOT THE REPORT FINISHED

B

HAVE STH DONE

GET STH DONE

HAVE STH DONE

GET STH DONE

Phew! I’ve finished

the report.

C

I HAD / GOT THE CAR REPAIRED

HAVE STH DONE

HAVE STH DONE

A

C

I had somebody

repair the car.

I HAD MY ARM BROKEN

Someone is cutting her hair at the moment.

CUT

is having her hair cut

She

right now.

SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION


Use of gerunds and infinitives

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

CAUSATIVE VERBS

HOME PAGE

Click for a sentence transformation exercise.

Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words.

A tailor is taking in her dresses around the waist now.

HER

Presently, she

is having / getting her dresses taken

in.

Have you finished decorating the new house?

THE

Have you

got the new house decorated?

I wonder when you will go to a dentist to check your teeth.

REPAIR

will have / get your teeth checked.

I wonder when you

His ankle was badly sprained while playing football.

BADLY

He

had his ankle badly sprained

during a game of football.

Somebody broke into the garage yesterday.

THE

yesterday.

had the garage broken into

We


Use of gerunds and infinitives

CAUSATIVE VERBS

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use of ‘Gerunds

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Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

S E N T E N C E -A-

S E N T E N C E -B-

PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING

SOMETHING

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

O B J E C T

SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A►

THE SUBJECT OF SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ►

PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

CAROL

O B J E C T

P A S S I V E VOICE

OBJECT + BE + V3

T O

i n f i n i t i v e

B A R E I N F I N I T I V E

CAROL

TO

CAROL IS SAID

LOVE HER PROFESSION

P R E S E N T

P R E S E N T

THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES

PRESENT...................................................................................PRESENT PAST...............................................................................................PAST


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

S E N T E N C E -A-

S E N T E N C E -B-

PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING

SOMETHING

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

SUBJECT

VERB

P A S S I V E VOICE

OBJECT + BE + V3

T O

i n f i n i t i v e

B A R E I N F I N I T I V E

TO

CAROL IS SAID

LOVE HER PROFESSION

P R E S E N T

P R E S E N T

People think that the manager has a terrible secret.

BELIEVED

The manager

is believed to have

a terrible secret.

People think that Irene is planning to leave.

BE

Irene

to leave.

is thought to be planning

THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES

PRESENT...................................................................................PRESENT PAST...............................................................................................PAST


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

present - TO - presentpresent - TO - futurepast - TO - past

TO

P R E S E N T

P R E S E N T

BE

IT

THAT

SHE

IS SAID

SHE IS A SPY

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

1►

Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseshe replaces the subject of the sentenceit

2►

Broken Object Connector: The infinitive ‘TO’ replaces THAT

3►

Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive ‘TO’

It is believed that the sales will drop dramatically.

ARE

The

sales are believed to drop

dramatically.

It is thought that urbanization poses a great threat to the nature.

IS

a big threat to the nature.

Urbanization

is thought to pose


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

S E N T E N C E -A-

S E N T E N C E -B-

PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING

SOMETHING

KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS

KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

O B J E C T

SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ►

SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ►

PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING

KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS

KATE

O B J E C T

P A S S I V E VOICE

OBJECT + BE + V3

T O

i n f i n i t i v e

B A R E I N F I N I T I V E

KATE

TO

KATE WAS BELIEVED

HAVE SUPERPOWERS

P A S T

P A S T

THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES

PRESENT...................................................................................PRESENT PAST...............................................................................................PAST


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

S E N T E N C E -A-

S E N T E N C E -B-

PEOPLE BELIEVED SOMETHING

SOMETHING

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

KATE HAD SUPERNATURAL POWERS

SUBJECT

VERB

P A S S I V E VOICE

OBJECT + BE + V3

T O

i n f i n i t i v e

B A R E I N F I N I T I V E

TO

KATE WAS BELIEVED

HAVE SUPERPOWERS

P A S T

P A S T

People claimed that he possessed a terrible secret.

POSSES

He

was claimed to possess

a terrible secret.

People acknowledged that he was a great authority in his field.

BE

He

a great authority in his field.

was acknowledged to be

THE INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO’ IF THERE IS AGREEMENT OF TIME ON BOTH SIDES

PRESENT...................................................................................PRESENT PAST...............................................................................................PAST


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

present - TO - presentpresent - TO - futurepast - TO - past

TO

P A S T

P A S T

HATE

IT

THAT

Amy

WAS SAID

AMY HATED CHILDREN

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

1►

Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseAmy replaces the subject of the sentenceit

2►

Broken Object Connector: The infinitive ‘TO’ replaces THAT

3►

Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive ‘TO’

It was said that Tom had an embarrassing secret.

WAS

Tom

was said to have a

skeleton in the cupboard.

It was thought that Jim didn’t trust anyone.

WAS

no one.

Jim

was thought to trust


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

present - TO - presentpresent - TO - futurepast - TO - past

TO

P R E S E N T

F U T U R E

MARRY

IT

THAT

TOM

IS BELIEVED

TOM WILL MARRY NO ONE

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

1►

Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseTom replaces the subject of the sentenceit

2►

Broken Object Connector: The infinitive ‘TO’ replaces THAT

3►

Bare Infinitive: The verb is used in the base form after the infinitive ‘TO’

It is said that Phil will move to another country next year.

IS

Phil

is said to move

to another country next year.

It is believed that rising corbondioxide levels will cause calamities.

ARE

calamities soon.

Rising carbondioxide levels

are believed to cause


Use of gerunds and infinitives

BARE INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

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to link to another

use of ‘Gerunds

and Infinitives’.


Use of gerunds and infinitives

‘TO HAVE’

PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

S E N T E N C E -A-

S E N T E N C E -B-

PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING

SOMETHING

SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS

SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

O B J E C T

SENTENCE B REPLACES THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A ►

SENTENCE B CAN BE USED AS THE OBJECT OF SENTENCE A IN THE PASSIVE VOICE ►

PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING

SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS

SHAKESPEARE

O B J E C T

P A S S I V E VOICE

OBJECT + BE + V3

‘T O H A V E’

P e r f e c t

i n f i n i t i v e

P A S T P A R T I C I P L E

SHAKESPEARE

TO HAVE

SHAKESPEARE IS SAID

INVENTED NEW WORDS

P R E S E N T

P A S T

THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO HAVE’ IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE FURTHER BACK IN TIME

PRESENT.............................................................................PAST

PRESENT......................................................PRESENT PERFECT

PAST....................................................................PAST PERFECT


Use of gerunds and infinitives

‘TO HAVE’

PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

S E N T E N C E -A-

S E N T E N C E -B-

PEOPLE SAY SOMETHING

SOMETHING

CAROL LOVES HER PROFESSION

SHAKESPEARE INVENTED NEW WORDS

SUBJECT

VERB

P A S S I V E VOICE

OBJECT + BE + V3

‘T O H A V E’

P e r f e c t

i n f i n i t i v e

P A S T P A R T I C I P L E

TO HAVE

SHAKESPEARE IS SAID

INVENTED NEW WORDS

P R E S E N T

P A S T

People believed that he had taken alcohol before driving.

HAVE

He

was believed to have taken

alcohol before driving.

People say that she has graduated from Harvard.

HAVE

She

from Harvard.

is said to have graduated

THE PERFECT INFINITIVE OBJECT SENTENCE B IS LINKED TO THE PASSIVE PREDICATE SENTENCE A WITH ‘TO HAVE’ IF SENTENCE B IS ONE DEGREE FURTHER BACK IN TIME

PRESENT.............................................................................PAST

PRESENT......................................................PRESENT PERFECT

PAST....................................................................PAST PERFECT


Use of gerunds and infinitives

‘TO HAVE’

PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

present - TO HAVE - pastpresent - TO HAVE - present perfectpast - TO HAVE - past PERFECT

TO HAVE

P R E S E N T

P A S T

POSSESSED

IT

THAT

MARS

ISCLAIMED

MARSPOSSESSEDLIFE

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

1►

Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseMars replaces the subject of the sentenceit

2►

Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive ‘TO HAVE’ replaces THAT

3►

Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive ‘TO’

It is thought that old civilizations lived in insecurity.

ARE

Old civilizations

are thought to have lived

in insecurity.

It is believed that Salvador Dali had many quirks.

IS

many quirks.

Salvadaor Dali

is believed to have had


Use of gerunds and infinitives

‘TO HAVE’

PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

present - TO HAVE - pastpresent - TO HAVE - present perfectpast - TO HAVE - past PERFECT

TO HAVE

P R E S E N T

P R E S E N T P E R F E C T

GOT

IT

THAT

RON

RONHAS GOT ADIVORCE

ISSAID

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

1►

Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseRon replaces the subject of the sentenceit

2►

Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive ‘TO HAVE’ replaces THAT

3►

Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive ‘TO’

It is said that Seth has come back from Africa.

IS

is said to have come

Seth

back from Africa.

It’s thought that the murder has been committed because of jealousy.

IS

is believed to have been

caused by jealousy.

The murder


Use of gerunds and infinitives

‘TO HAVE’

PERFECT INFINITIVE AFTER THE PASSIVE VOICE

present - TO HAVE - pastpresent - TO HAVE - present perfectpast - TO HAVE - past PERFECT

TO HAVE

P A S T

P A S T P E R F E C T

CHEATED

IT

THAT

I

WASCLAIMED

I HAD CHEATED

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

1►

Broken Object: The subject in the object clauseI replaces the subject of the sentenceit

2►

Broken Object Connector: The perfect infinitive ‘TO HAVE’ replaces THAT

3►

Perfect Infinitive: The verb is used in the past participle form after perfect infinitive ‘TO’

It was believed that Prometheus had stolen the fire from Titans.

WAS

Prometheus

was believed to have stolen

the fire from Titans.

It was claimed that the he had embezzled the funds of the company.

WAS

the funds of the company.

He

was claimed to have embezzled


Use of gerunds and infinitives

LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM

TO

BE

IT

THAT

Amy

ISBELIEVED

AMYIS PRETENDING

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

CLICK TO SEE THE

TRANSFORMATION

TO HAVE

BEEN

IT

THAT

Amy

ISBELIEVED

AMYWAS PRETENDING

S U B J E C T

V E R B

O B J E C T C L A U S E

It is thought that the world is getting worse each day

IS

The world

is thought to be getting

worse each day.

It is believed that Dan was keeping a secret from us.

IS

keeping a secret from us.

is believed to have been

Dan


Use of gerunds and infinitives

LINKING THE COUNTINUOUS FORM

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