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Chapter Six: . The American Revolution. Section One Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Side. Patriot Disadvantages Poorly organized and untrained Few cannons, little gunpowder, no navy Few willing to enlist for long periods Preferred to fight near home

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Chapter six

Chapter Six:

The American Revolution


Section one advantages and disadvantages of each side
Section OneAdvantages and Disadvantages of Each Side

  • Patriot Disadvantages

    • Poorly organized and untrained

    • Few cannons, little gunpowder, no navy

    • Few willing to enlist for long periods

    • Preferred to fight near home

    • Some were neutral (Tories) or Loyalists and opposed the war. More in the South (1/5-1/3)


  • Patriot Advantages

    • Many owned rifles and were good shots

    • Brilliant commander; George Washington

      • Courage, honesty, determination

    • Determined to defend their homes and property


  • British Disadvantages

    • Armies 3000 miles from home

    • News and supplies took months to travel

    • Soldiers risked attacks once in countryside


  • British Advantages

    • Powerful; highly trained experienced troops

    • Most powerful navy in world

    • Supported by many in the States

    • Wealth of a worldwide empire

    • 8 million v. 2.5 million people


Why were some loyalists
Why were some Loyalists?

  • Anglicans (church headed up by King)

  • Job dependence

  • Fear of disorder

  • Didn’t get what the problem was


African americans
African Americans

  • Half a million

  • British army offered freedom to male slaves

  • Many near coast fled to British navy

  • 5000 Army (not allowed at first)

  • 2000 Navy

  • Special black regiments

  • White regiments

    • Drummers, fifers, spies, guides

      • James Armistead (spy…victory at Yorktown)

  • 9 minutemen at Lexington and Concord

    • Prince Estabrook


Recruiting
Recruiting

  • Difficult/focus on personal liberty

  • Congress

    • Est. Continental Army

      • Relied on states to recruit

      • 1 year…3 years…length of war


Women in the army
Women in the Army

  • Margaret Corbin-followed husband into battle

  • Deborah Sampson-dressed as man and enlisted

  • Mary Ludwig Hays-carried water to soldiers and filled in for husband when killed “Molly Pitcher” (SMS 186)


Battle of long island
Battle of Long Island

  • 1776-British send 32,000 to NY

    • Under General William Howe

    • Americans are outnumbered 2:1

      • Washington: 20,000 w/no navy

      • Howe: 34,000 and 10,000 in the navy


Results
Results:

  • 1400 American killed, wounded, or captured

  • Retreated across the E. River (gathered as many boats as they could during a thunderstorm transferring 9,500) to Manhattan

  • Washington goes North to New Jersey and retreats across the DE into PN


Side note who is nathan hale
Side note: Who is Nathan Hale?

  • Young CT officer (Yale graduate) who spied on the British

  • Seized and Searched

    • Found notes on BT troop movement in soles of shoes

    • Executed (21/no trial)


Very low period
Very Low Period

  • Sick

  • Dirty

  • Many desertions

  • Scantily clad

  • Many not re-enlisting

  • Washington writes brother that he thinks it’s pretty much over


But victories in new jersey
BUT: Victories in New Jersey

  • Battle of Trenton

    • Christmas night 1776

    • WA has heard that Trenton is only being guarded by 1500 Hessians

    • 2400 patriots crossed the DE River back into NJ

      • Few winter uniforms

      • Frozen and exhausted

      • Arrived w/rags for shoes/bloody footprints

    • Surprised Hessians asleep after eating Xmas dinner


Princeton
Princeton

  • General Cornwallis wants to retake Trenton and see the lights of Washington’s fires.

    • Fires are a trick! No one there.

    • Washington already behind British lines to attack them on their way to Princeton

Victory at Princeton!

Wintered at Morristown

AMERICANS HAVE NEW HOPE AFTER TRENTON AND PRINCETON


Revolutionary war turning point
Revolutionary War Turning Point…

  • 1777 John Burgoyne has new plan for BT Victory

    • 3 prong attack to cut off NE from other colonies

    • 3 BT armies attack from different directions

    • Burgoyne will come down from the North to Albany, NY


Battle of saratoga 1777
Battle of Saratoga-1777

  • Borgoyne’s support from the west and south does not arrive

  • Surrounded by large Patriot force

  • Surrenders

  • BT army marched back to Boston and put on ships to England

  • Resigns

  • Replaced by Henry Clinton


Significance
Significance

  • Major turning point in war

  • Ended the BT threat to NE

  • Boosted American Spirits

  • Convinced France to become an ally

    • They had proven they might actually win


6 2 our boy ben
(6-2) Our Boy Ben

  • By the time of Saratoga, Ben Franklin had been in Paris for almost 1 year

  • America’s “First Ambassador”

  • Seeking support from France

  • One of strongest militaries in world

  • Hated BT for loss in Fr/In war

  • BrainPop/Article


Spain and the americans
Spain and the Americans

  • Hated British also

  • Declared war on BT 1779

  • Bernardo de Galvez

    • Spanish Governor of Louisiana

    • Attacks on BT in MS, LA, AL, W. FL

Can you guess what city is named after him?


Focus 7 1 29 13
Focus #7 1-29-13

  • The Americans claimed to fight for liberty and freedom. How did these ideals make women and enslaved Africans question their positions in society?


Misery at valley forge
Misery at Valley Forge

  • Americans are in PN 20 miles west of BT (in Philly)

  • Lacked food, clothing, shelter

  • High desertion

  • Resignation of officers

  • Conditions gradually improved

  • By April 1778 learn of alliance with France –YEE HAW!

  • (History.com)


Help from foreign men
Help from Foreign Men

  • Marquis de Lafayette (FRANCE)

    • trusted aide to George Washington

  • Thaddeus Kosciusko (POLAND)

    • engineer

  • Casimir Pulaski (POLAND)

    • Cavalry officer

  • Friedrich von Steuben (GERMANY)-drilled Patriot troops teaching military discipline

  • Juan de Mirrales (SPAIN)

    • Urged Spain, Cuba, and Mexico to send financial aide


Money to finance the war
Money to Finance the War:

  • Congress had no power to tax

  • Inflation

a rise in the level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.[When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. -An erosion in the purchasing power of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange (dollars!)


Women
Women

  • Took on men’s jobs as they were away

  • Result: Began questioning their roles

    • Judith Sargeant Murray-equal education for girls

    • Abigail Adams-against absolute power by men


Loyalists
Loyalists

  • Fought with BT

  • Some spied on Patriots

  • Fled-to England, FL, Canada or the frontier

  • If stayed, not pleasant for them (violence, shunned, etc.)


Many are questioning slavery
Many are Questioning Slavery

  • Legislatures began to consider banning slavery beginning in the northeast


Focus 8 1 30 13
Focus #8 1-30-13

  • Write the following people in a column on the left side of your paper:

  • Pulaski

  • Kosciusko

  • Von Steuben

  • Miralles

  • Lafayette

  • To the side, write one key word which will help you remember what they did.


Focus 9 1 31 13
Focus #9 1/31/13

  • Why did many Native Americans give their support to the British?

Native Americans


6 3 the war moves west and south
6-3: The War Moves West and South

  • Francis Marion “the Swamp Fox”

    • His life was like a sandwich: Boring/Exciting/Boring (Smithsonian Magazine)

    • SC

    • Lived off the land

    • Disappeared into the swamps

    • Surprise attacks and sabotage

General Marion inviting a British officer to share his meal. Hangs in 3rd floor of Capitol Building in DC/Senate Side


Native americans
Native Americans

  • Helped British more than Americans

  • In war on W. Front, raided American settlements

  • Joseph Brant (Mohawk Chief) led brutal attacks in SW New York and N Pennsylvania



Vincennes
Vincennes West which was called “Detroit.”


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