Safety & Sanitation
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Safety & Sanitation. Think about it…. Have you ever gotten sick after eating a meal at a restaurant? Or even at home? Did you ever wonder if you had been served unsafe food or if someone hadn’t handled your food properly?

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Safety & Sanitation

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Safety & Sanitation

Think about it…

  • Have you ever gotten sick after eating a meal at a restaurant? Or even at home?

  • Did you ever wonder if you had been served unsafe food or if someone hadn’t handled your food properly?

  • How would you feel if, by accident, you spread harmful bacteria that caused someone to get seriously ill?

Why is it important to keep food safe?

  • You could get sick.

  • You could get others sick.

  • Dining experiences can be ruined.

  • Restaurants can loose their reputation

    In conclusion, Serving good food makes good business.

Contamination and Cross Contamination

Contamination = harmful things are present in food, making it unsafe to eat.

Cross Contamination = harmful microorganisms are transferred from one surface, or food to another.

Potentially Hazardous Food

  • Any food item (even water/ice) could cause foodbourne illness

  • Most often foodbourne illnesses are caused from moist, proteins with neutral or slight acidic pH

    • Meats

    • Poultry

    • Fish

    • Eggs

    • Dairy products

Cleaning Verses Sanitizing

  • A clean kitchen means it is free of visible soil, such as dirt and dust and food waste.

    • It’s the first requirement of any kitchen.

  • A sanitized kitchen means it is microorganism free or reduced by washing all surfaces and equipment using hot water and a chemical sanitizing solution.

    • It is the second requirement of any kitchen.


Good Personal Hygiene

  • Food borne microorganisms are living, single celled organisms that can cause food spoilage and illness.

  • They can be transferred from hands and surfaces to other food, hands and surfaces.

  • To prevent, have good personal hygiene:

    • Take baths/showers

    • Wash hands often

    • Clean clothing

    • No jewelry, fingernail polish

      or false nails

Steps to Proper Hand-Washing

  • Wet hands with running water (as hot as you can handle) 100°F

  • Apply soap

  • Vigorously scrub hands and arms for at least 20 seconds

  • Clean under fingernails

  • Rinse thoroughly under running water

  • Dry hands and arms with a single use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer

Microorganisms That Cause Foodbourne Illness

  • Bacteria – Salmonellosis, Colitis, Listeriosis, Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis, Bacillus, Botulism, and Shigellosis

  • Viruses – Hepatitis

  • Parasites – (Organisms that live in a host animal) –Trichinosis

  • Fungi – Mold, Yeast, and Toxins

Chemical and Physical Hazards that can Contaminate Food

  • Found in food service establishments.

    • Toxic metals found in utensils and equipment

    • Pesticides

    • Cleaning Chemicals

      To Prevent:

    • Follow safe directions in handling chemicals.

    • Keep chemicals in a dry locked cabinet away from food, utensils and equipment.

Time and Temp

  • These are two of the most important factors in keeping food safe.

  • Monitor internal temperatures of food.

  • Make sure food is kept below the Danger Zone.

  • Record temperatures.


  • The Danger Zone is the temperatures where bacteria grows the fastest.

  • It is between 40°F and 140°F.

  • All cold food served must be cooler than 40°F.


  • All hot food served must be hotter than 140°F.


In order to keep foods safe, a good rule of thumb is to keep

HOT foods HOT


COLD foods COLD!


Bacteria multiplies quickly when six conditions are present.

  • F = Food = Be aware of food where bacteria live.

  • A = Acidity = pH levels between 4.6 and 7.5.

  • T = Temperature = Danger Zone Temperatures.

  • T = Time = 4 hours or more.

  • O = Oxygen = Bacteria need oxygen to live.

  • M = Moisture = Keep away from moist environments

Handling Food

Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill

When purchasing foods…

  • Do not purchase cans with swelled top, missing labels, rusty, leaking, or dented.

  • Do not buy anything past its due date.

  • Look for signs or early spoilage.

  • Look around the food and where it has been kept.

When Storing Food…

  • Store in proper temperatures.

  • Keep storage areas clean.

  • Wrap in air tight containers away from oxygen.

When Preparing/Cooking Food…

Use proper time and temperatures.

Don’t thaw food at room temperature!!!

  • Thaw: in refrigerator, under running warm water, in microwave, or using a cooking method.

Left Overs

  • No more than 2 hours in the Danger Zone.

  • Divide pieces before storing into smaller pieces.

  • Use stainless steel pans.

  • Place in top shelf of the refrigerator.

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