Knowledge

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# Knowledge - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Knowledge. Gettier’s Argument. Review. The Tripartite Analysis : S knows that p iff S has a justified, true belief that p. The Knowledge Thesis : In order to know that something is the case, you first have to rule out all the alternatives.

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### Knowledge

Gettier’s Argument

Review
• The Tripartite Analysis: S knows that p iff S has a justified, true belief that p.
• The Knowledge Thesis: In order to know that something is the case, you first have to rule out all the alternatives.
• The Fallabilist Reply: Knowledge is justified true belief and justification does not require certainty, so knowledge doesn’t require certainty either.
Gettier’s Case

Smith and Jones are applying for a job with a company. Smith has just spoken to the president of the company and learned that Jones will get the job. Smith believes that Jones will get the job, and for good reason. Smith also believes that Jones has ten coins in his pocket. He just saw Jones empty his pocket looking for a quarter, and put ten coins back in the pocket. Smith has been watching him ever since and is sure he neither removed nor added any coins.

Smith muses idly to himself, “Well, it looks like the person who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.”

Gettier’s Case

Suppose Smith gets the job (the company president changed his mind)… Furthermore, it turns out that Smith has ten coins in his pocket (something which Smith has no evidence about). Then “the person who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.” Yet it is ridiculous to say Smith know this; it is sheer luck that it is true.

-Poundstone, LOR

Gettier’s Argument
• Smith has a justified, true belief that the person who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.
• If (1), then, if the Tripartite Analysis is correct, Smith knows that the person who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.
• Smith doesn’t know that the person who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.
• [So] The Tripartite Analysis isn’t correct.
Replies to Gettier
• The Tripartite Analysis: S knows that p iff
• p is true,
• S believes that p;
• S’s belief that p is justified; and
• ???
Replies to Gettier
• First Proposal: S knows that p iff
• p is true,
• S believes that p;
• S’s belief that p is justified; and
• S is certain that p.
Replies to Gettier
• Second Proposal: S knows that p iff
• p is true,
• S believes that p;
• S’s belief that p is justified; and
• S’s justification for p does not involve any false beliefs.
Replies to Gettier
• D is a defeater for S’s belief that p iff were S to find out about D, he would no longer believe that p.
• Third Proposal: S knows that p iff
• p is true,
• S believes that p;
• S’s belief that p is justified; and
• There is no defeater for S’s belief that p.