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Community Health Assessment: Primary Data Collection. LHD TA Project – Learning Collaborative 1 Community Health Assessment Second Learning Session Sheena L. Smith, M.P.P. Kansas Health Institute October 24, 2012. Why Primary Data?. Fill gaps in data from secondary sources

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Community health assessment primary data collection

Community Health Assessment:Primary Data Collection

LHD TA Project – Learning Collaborative 1

Community Health Assessment

Second Learning Session

Sheena L. Smith, M.P.P.

Kansas Health Institute

October 24, 2012

Why primary data
Why Primary Data?

  • Fill gaps in data from secondary sources

  • Probe community perceptions

  • Build deeper understanding of health status and needs in the community

  • Involve the community – hear the community voice

Approaches to primary data collection
Approaches to Primary Data Collection

  • Surveys

  • Focus groups

  • Key informant Interviews

  • Health Resources Inventory

  • Asset Mapping

  • Photo Voice

Community opinion survey
Community Opinion Survey

  • Discover perceptions of community members about their health status and health of the community

  • Good to use when the goal is to hear opinions from a wide variety of people and get a representative profile of community

  • Usually short questions with predetermined response options

  • Sampling method is important to ensure results can be generalized to entire community

Opinion surveys sampling
Opinion Surveys - Sampling

  • Two approaches:

    • Non-probability (convenience)

      • Survey made available to public through various means

      • No control over who responds

    • Probability (random or systematic)

      • Each person in community has a defined probability of being sampled

  • When done correctly, random samples are generalizable to the community

  • Opinion surveys sample size
    Opinion Surveys – Sample Size

    • Probability sample

      • Sample size needed depends upon

        • Population size

        • Prevalence of the outcome of interest

        • Desired precision of the estimate

    • For a free sample size calculator:

      • Open Epi

    Opinion surveys sample size1
    Opinion Surveys – Sample Size

    • Convenience Sample

      • Not generalizable to the population –results represent only the survey respondents

      • Susceptible to bias no matter what sample size

      • No way to estimate reliability or precision of estimates

      • The sampling strategy varies based on topic, resources, and desired results

      • Including various groups can ensure all desired perspectives are represented in the sample

    Opinion surveys sample size2
    Opinion Surveys – Sample Size

    • How many is enough?

      • Probability Sample

        • As the number of people surveyed goes up, the margin of error goes down


    Opinion surveys sample size3
    Opinion Surveys – Sample Size

    • How many is enough?

      • Convenience Sample

        • Attempt to achieve the highest practical number of respondents

        • Strategize ways to reach desired audiences

          • Target specific community groups and demographics to ensure adequate representation

          • Attempt to receive as many responses from each group identified (at least 50)

    Opinion surveys questions
    Opinion Surveys - Questions

    • Less is more (concise and clear questions)

    • Open-ended (use sparingly)

    • Close-ended

      • Yes/no

      • Multiple choice

      • Numeric answers

      • Rankings

      • Likert Scale (ratings)

    • Unbiased, non-leading questions

    • Avoid Double-barreled questions

    • Pilot questionnaire and revise as necessary

    Opinion surveys execution
    Opinion Surveys – Execution

    Sending out the survey

    • Mail

    • Phone

    • Email

    • Web-based (e.g. Survey Monkey)

      What method is best?

    • Surveys can be sent using one or a combination of methods

    • Web-based surveys generally yield lower response rates than mail or phone, but are more convenient and cost effective to implement

    Opinion surveys analysis
    Opinion Surveys - Analysis

    • Identify themes according to responses

    • If analyzing responses from a probability sample

      • The results can be generalized to the entire community

    • If analyzing responses from a convenience sample

      • Analyze demographic information to understand if desired community groups are represented

      • Integrate results from other primary data collection methods (interviews, objective data)

    Focus groups
    Focus Groups

    • Gather a greater depth and complexity of information

    • Can yield unanticipated responses

    • Opportunity to get opinions from diverse groups

    • More difficult and time-consuming than surveys to organize, conduct and analyze

    Focus groups1
    Focus Groups

    • Small groups of 6-12 participants

    • Participants do not know one another

    • Session 1 ½ - 2 hours long

    • Conduct multiple group sessions

    • Same 7-10 open-ended questions asked of each group

    • Discussion recorded and transcribed

    • Analyze for themes, differing positions that emerged from discussions

    Key informant interviews
    Key Informant Interviews

    • Structured conversations with people who have specialized knowledge

    • A way to collect complex information, and explore a subject in depth

    • Predetermined question guide based on identified objectives

    • Interviewees selected based upon what CHA team wants to know

    • Not representative

    Key informant interviews1
    Key Informant Interviews

    • Information can be analyzed in a variety of ways

      • Based on questions asked

      • Based on groups interviewed

    • Identify themes

    • Combine results with other primary or secondary data collection efforts

    Health resources inventory
    Health Resources Inventory

    • 3 Components:

      • Identifies current agencies and organizations that have some bearing on health

      • Identifies resources that are needed, but lacking

      • Narrative to explain how existing resources and needed resources influence health of the community

    Asset mapping
    Asset Mapping

    • Community asset = a quality, person, or thing that is an advantage, resource of item of value to the community

    • Asset mapping looks at different types of assets in the community

      • Individuals

      • Institutions and organizations

      • Governmental agencies

      • Physical/ land assets

      • Cultural opportunities

    Health resources inventory1
    Health Resources Inventory

    • Health facilities

    • Health providers

    • Health-related supportive services

      • Child care, senior centers

      • Law enforcement

      • Parks and recreation

      • Social Services

      • Public transportation

    Asset mapping1
    Asset Mapping

    • Potential areas for assessment:

      • Individuals – personal skills, strengths, knowledge, experience, leadership skills…

      • Local citizens associations – churches, neighborhood clubs, service clubs, cultural groups…

      • Local institutions – schools, hospitals, banks, businesses….

      • Physical assets – parks, buildings, land, community centers….

    Photo voice
    Photo Voice

    • Community participants are given cameras and asked to take photos of things that represent to them a specified issue or topic in the community

    • Participants then discuss photos together and develop narratives to go with the photos

    • Gives voice to members of the community, attempts to bring the perspectives of those "who lead lives that are different from those traditionally in control of the means for imaging the world" into the policy-making process

    • Often used among marginalized people, intended to give insight into how they conceptualize their circumstances and their hopes for the future.

    Kansas health institute
    Kansas Health Institute

    Information for policy makers. Health for Kansans.