CHAPTER 33. Instrumental Music in Italy.
Instrumental Music in Italy
While during the sixteenth century composers had written much instrumental music, not until the seventeenth century did composers write and published music for instruments in a truly idiomatic fashion. New instruments, new styles of playing, and new genres of pieces, all emerged during the seventeenth century. The place of origin of these innovations was northern Italy.
In comparison to its modern counterpart, the Baroque violin is characterized by:
Leaving behind the four-voice imitative polyphony of the late Renaissance canzona, Rossi adopted the top-bottom texture typical of vocal music. Clearly influenced by the lyrical monody and duets of Monteverdi, with whom he worked for several years the Gonzaga court in Mantua, Rossi's sonatas feature a violin duet on top and basso continuo on the bottom (Anthology, No. 92).
a bass moving in steady pace, usually in eighth notes, up and down the scale
The seventeenth century trumpet was a natural instrument without keys or valves. The only notes it can produce are those of the harmonic series (Ex. 33-6). Only in the highest register, called the clarino register, could the trumpet play conjunct melodies. Bologna and its gigantic basilica of St. Petronio were the most important center for trumpet music during the seventeenth century.
In his trumpet pieces Torelli developed two procedures that became hallmarks of the emerging Baroque concerto: