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Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes. Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions: Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant ? List the various means engine designs can be classified. What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?

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warm up 1 24 10 minutes
Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes

Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions:

  • Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant?
  • List the various means engine designs can be classified.
  • What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?
  • Describe a major advantage of a horizontally opposed aircraft powerplant?
  • Describe the four stroke sequence of a four stroke reciprocating engine?
warm up 1 24 10 minutes1
Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes

Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions:

  • Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant?
  • List the various means engine designs can be classified.
  • What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?
  • Describe a major advantage of a horizontally opposed aircraft powerplant?
  • Describe the four stroke sequence of a four stroke reciprocating engine?
aircraft systems powerplant
Aircraft SystemsPowerplant
  • An aircraft engine, or powerplant, produces thrust to propel
  • an aircraft. Reciprocating engines work in combination with a propeller to produce thrust.
  • These powerplantsalso drive the various systems that support the operation of an aircraft.
warm up 1 24 10 minutes2
Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes

Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions:

  • Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant?
  • List the various means engine designs can be classified.
  • What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?
  • Describe a major advantage of a horizontally opposed aircraft powerplant?
  • Describe the four stroke sequence of a four stroke reciprocating engine?
powerplants reciprocating engines
PowerplantsReciprocating Engines
  • Engine designs can be further classified as:
  • Cylinder arrangement with respect to the crankshaft—radial, in-line, v-type, or opposed.
  • Operating cycle—two or four.
  • Method of cooling—liquid or air.
warm up 1 24 10 minutes3
Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes

Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions:

  • Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant?
  • List the various means engine designs can be classified.
  • What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?
  • Describe a major advantage of a horizontally opposed aircraft powerplant?
  • Describe the four stroke sequence of a four stroke reciprocating engine?
powerplants reciprocating engines1
PowerplantsReciprocating Engines
  • In-line engines have a comparatively small frontal area, but their power-to-weight ratios are relatively low.
  • In addition, the rearmost cylinders of an air-cooled, in-line engine receive very little cooling air.
warm up 1 24 10 minutes4
Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes

Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions:

  • Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant?
  • List the various means engine designs can be classified.
  • What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?
  • Describe a major advantage of a horizontally opposed aircraft powerplant?
  • Describe the four stroke sequence of a four stroke reciprocating engine?
powerplants reciprocating engines2
PowerplantsReciprocating Engines
  • These engines always have an even number of cylinders, since a cylinder on one side of the crankcase “opposes” a cylinder on the other side.
  • The majority of these engines are air cooled and usually are mounted in a horizontal position when installed on fixed-wing airplanes..
warm up 1 24 10 minutes5
Warm-Up – 1/24 – 10 minutes

Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions:

  • Describe three main purposes of the aircraft powerplant?
  • List the various means engine designs can be classified.
  • What is a major disadvantage of an inline engine?
  • Describe a major advantage of a horizontally opposed aircraft powerplant?
  • Describe the four stroke sequence of a four stroke reciprocating engine?
powerplants reciprocating engines3
PowerplantsReciprocating Engines
  • In a four-stroke engine the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy occurs over a four stroke operating cycle.
  • The intake, compression, power, and exhaust processes occur in four separate strokes of the piston.
this day in aviation
THIS DAY IN AVIATION
  • January 24
  • In 1932... French pilots Paul Condos and Henri Robida land in Paris after flying from Hanoi in French Indochina in a record time of 3 days 4 hours.
slide18

Chapter 6– Aircraft Systems

FAA – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

today s mission requirements
Today’s Mission Requirements
  • Mission:
  • Identify in writing the primary systems found on most aircraft.
  • Describe the basic operation and characteristics of the primary aircraft systems.
  • EQ:

Describe the importance of Aeronautical Knowledge for the student pilot learning to fly.

aircraft systems propeller
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The propeller is a rotating airfoil, subject to induced drag, stalls, and other aerodynamic principles that apply to any airfoil.
  • The engine power is used to rotate the propeller, which in turn generates thrust very similar to the manner in which a wing produces lift.
aircraft systems propeller1
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The reason for the twist is to produce uniform lift from the hub to the tip.
  • As the blade rotates, there is a difference in the actual speed of the various portions of the blade.
aircraft systems propeller2
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The tip of the blade travels faster than the part near the hub, because the tip travels a greater distance than the hub in the same length of time.
aircraft systems propeller3
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • Fixed-Pitch Propeller
    • A propeller with fixed blade angles is a fixed-pitch propeller.
    • The pitch of this propeller is set by the manufacturer and cannot be changed.
aircraft systems propeller4
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • Since a fixed-pitch propeller achieves the best efficiency only at a given combination of airspeed and rpm, the pitch setting is ideal for neither cruise nor climb.
  • The fixed-pitch propeller is used when low weight, simplicity, and low cost are needed.
aircraft systems propeller5
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • There are two types of fixed-pitch propellers:
    • climb and cruise.
  • The climb propeller has a lower pitch, therefore less drag.
  • Less drag results in higher rpm and more horsepower capability, which increases performance during takeoffs and climbs, but decreases performance during cruising flight.
aircraft systems propeller6
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The cruise propeller has a higher pitch, therefore more drag.
  • More drag results in lower rpm and less horsepower capability, which decreases performance during takeoffs and climbs, but increases efficiency during cruising flight.
aircraft systems propeller7
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • In a fixed-pitch propeller, the tachometer is the indicator of engine power.
  • A tachometer is calibrated in hundreds of rpm and gives a direct indication of the engine and propeller rpm.
  • The instrument is color coded, with a green arc denoting the maximum continuous operating rpm.
aircraft systems propeller8
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The rpm is regulated by the throttle.
  • The higher the tachometer reading, the higher the power output of the engine.
aircraft systems propeller9
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • When operating altitude increases, the tachometer may not show correct power output of the engine.
  • For example, 2,300 rpm at 5,000 feet produces less horsepower than 2,300 rpm at sea level because power output depends on air density.
  • Air density decreases with altitude.
aircraft systems propeller10
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • As altitude changes, the position of the throttle must be changed to maintain the same rpm.
  • As altitude is increased, the throttle must be opened further to indicate the same rpm as at a lower altitude.
aircraft systems propeller11
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • Adjustable-Pitch Propeller
    • A constant-speed propeller is a controllable-pitch propeller whose pitch is automatically varied in flight by a governor maintaining constant rpm despite varying air loads.
aircraft systems propeller12
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The main advantage of a constant-speed propeller is that it converts a high percentage of brake horsepower (BHP) into thrust horsepower (THP) over a wide range of rpm and airspeed combinations.
  • A constant-speed propeller is more efficient than other propellers because it allows selection of the most efficient engine rpm for the given conditions.
aircraft systems propeller13
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • An aircraft with a constant-speed propeller has two controls:
    • the throttle and the propeller control.
    • The throttle controls power output and the propeller control regulates engine rpm.
    • This in turn regulates propeller rpm which is registered on the tachometer.
aircraft systems propeller14
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • Once a specific rpm is selected, a governor automatically adjusts the propeller blade angle as necessary to maintain the selected rpm.
  • As long as the propeller blade angle is within the constant-speed range and not against either pitch stop, a constant engine rpm will be maintained.
aircraft systems propeller15
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • On aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller, power output is controlled by the throttle and indicated by a manifold pressure gauge.
  • The gauge measures the absolute pressure of the fuel/air mixture inside the intake manifold and is more correctly a measure of manifold absolute pressure (MAP).
aircraft systems propeller16
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • At a constant rpm and altitude, the amount of power produced is directly related to the fuel/air flow being delivered to the combustion chamber.
  • As the throttle setting is increased, more fuel and air flows to the engine and MAP increases.
aircraft systems propeller17
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • The manifold pressure gauge is color coded to indicate the engine’s operating range.
  • The face of the manifold pressure gauge contains a green arc to show the normal operating range, and a red radial line to indicate the upper limit of manifold pressure.
aircraft systems propeller18
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • For any given rpm, there is a manifold pressure that should not be exceeded.
  • If manifold pressure is excessive for a given rpm, the pressure within the cylinders could be exceeded, placing undue stress on the cylinders.
aircraft systems propeller19
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • If repeated too frequently, this stress can weaken the cylinder components and eventually cause engine failure.
  • As a general rule, manifold pressure (inches) should be less than the rpm.
aircraft systems propeller20
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • When power settings are being decreased, reduce manifold pressure before reducing rpm.
  • When power settings are being increased — increase rpm first, then manifold pressure.
aircraft systems propeller21
Aircraft SystemsPropeller
  • Avoid operation at maximum rpm and low manifold pressure.
  • The engine and/or airframe manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed to prevent severe wear, fatigue, and damage to high-performance reciprocating engines.
class summary propellers
Class Summary - Propellers
  • The propeller is a rotating airfoil, subject to induced drag, stalls, and other aerodynamic principles that apply to any airfoil.
  • Types of propellers include:
  • Fixed pitch and adjustable
class summary propellers1
Class Summary - Propellers
  • Understanding the control and interaction of the throttle pitch are critical
  • Two instruments covered include the tachometer and the manifold pressure indicator
slide45

1. Create (1) quiz question with answer about today’s lesson.

3. List 3 things you learned today.

2. List 2 things you have questions about today’s lesson.

Lesson Closure - 3 – 2 - 1

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