Recycling polypropylene carpets
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Recycling polypropylene carpets. In association with Carpet Recycling UK Funded by Envirolink Northwest Jane Gardner. Presentation Summary. Project aims Types of carpet Current recycling routes Demonstration trial results Economic assessment Project conclusions. Project aims.

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Recycling polypropylene carpets

Recycling polypropylene carpets

In association with Carpet Recycling UK

Funded by Envirolink Northwest

Jane Gardner


Presentation summary
Presentation Summary

  • Project aims

  • Types of carpet

  • Current recycling routes

  • Demonstration trial results

  • Economic assessment

  • Project conclusions


Project aims
Project aims

  • To develop a process for recycling polypropylene carpets

  • To assess commercial viability of the process


Uk carpet sustainability
UK Carpet sustainability

  • Over half a million tonnes/year of carpet enters the UK waste stream

  • Recycling rate currently less than 2%

  • Carpets have high carbon footprint due to use of virgin materials – big sustainability gain if recycled


Carpet materials
Carpet materials

  • Polymers:

    • Polypropylene (PP);

    • Polyester/Polyethylene terephthalate (PET);

    • Nylon;

    • Chalk-filled elastomers;

  • Natural fibres:

    • Wool; and

    • Hessian/Jute.


Types of carpet woven
Types of carpet - woven

  • Made by weaving the carpet pile into warp fibres with a loom

  • Warp fibres can be polyester or PP, whilst the pile tends to be PP

http://www.armelcarpet.com/images/WovenDiag.gif


Types of carpet tufted
Types of carpet - tufted

  • Pile fibres attached to a backing layer

  • Pile fibres - wool or PP

  • Elastomercompound bonds fibres to the backing layer

  • Second backing layer – made from hessian or manmade fibre such as PP

http://www.fine-flooring.com/TuftedDiagA.gif


Carpet recycling initiatives
Carpet recycling initiatives

America:

  • CARE – Carpet America Recovery Effort – founded 2002

    Europe – late 1990’s:

  • RECAM - Recovery of Carpet Materials

  • CRE - Carpet Recycling Europe

  • Polyamid 2000 in Germany

    UK – late 2000’s:

  • Greenback Recycling

  • Reeds Carpets – exhibition/temporary floors


Existing end markets
Existing end markets

  • Typically low value

  • Equestrian surfaces – additive to sand based all weather surfaces

  • Plastic cannot be recovered once used as equestrian surface

  • Other applications:

    • Horticultural market

http://www.equestriansurfaces.co.uk/aboutus.html


Axion recycling trials
Axion recycling trials

  • NIR ID sorting

  • Size reduction

  • Screening

  • Extrusion


Size reduction
Size reduction

  • Granulation

    • 15mm screen

  • Alternative options:

    • Shearing

    • Shredding



Screen to remove dust fines
Screen to remove dust, fines

  • High energy flip-flop screen

  • 12x12mm deck

  • Alternative technique

    • dry cleaning


Screening results
Screening results

  • Oversized fraction cleaner and less dusty than feed

  • High yield loss - due to screen size of granulator (15mm) relative to flip-flop (12mm)

  • For 12mm flip-flop - granulator needs to be 20-25mm

  • For 15mm granulator screen - flip-flop needs to be 6-8mm


Lab scale extrusion
Lab scale extrusion

  • Sorted PP carpet samples:

    • Post industrial

    • Post consumer

  • Material prepared for extrusion by partial melting then granulation


Extrusion problems
Extrusion problems

  • Initial batch of carpets could not be extruded

  • Presence of un-melted fibres made from different polymers – nylon and PET

  • Problem due to different types of carpet – woven and tufted

  • Second batch of tufted carpet processed successfully


Moulded polymer
Moulded polymer

  • Post industrial – injection moulding applications

  • Post consumer – lower grade injection moulding, for example plant pots and buckets



Commercial assessment
Commercial assessment

  • Feed stock in Northwest - estimated at over 6,000 tonnes per annum meeting specification of:

    • Tufted construction;

    • Positively identified PP pile and backing fibres;

    • Dry and with no heavy contamination;

    • Suitable for manual handling.






Technical conclusions
Technical conclusions

  • Straight forward processing route:

    • Rigorous PP identification and sorting

    • Size reduction

    • Screening

    • Extrusion

  • Finished PP:

    • Good physical properties,

    • Suitable for use in medium to low grade applications, Eg injection moulded plant pots


Commercial conclusions
Commercial conclusions

  • Critical success factor - correct identification of all polymer fibres within the carpet

  • Economics of the recycling process are promising

  • Next step: Commercial scale testing


Axion consulting
Axion Consulting

Tudor House

Meadway

Bramhall

SK2 2DG

0161 426 7731

[email protected]


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