Ir1imem year one
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IR1IMEM YEAR ONE. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY L2: Reviewing Literature, Formulating Research Problem, Variables DR. JAVED-VASSILIS KHAN, Drs. Allerd Peters, Frank Weissman BREDA SEP2011. INDEX. Reviewing the Literature. REVIEWING THE LITERATURE. Integral part of research process

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IR1IMEM YEAR ONE

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Ir1imem year one

IR1IMEM YEAR ONE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

L2: Reviewing Literature, Formulating Research Problem, Variables

DR. JAVED-VASSILIS KHAN, Drs. Allerd Peters, Frank Weissman

BREDASEP2011


Index

INDEX

  • Reviewing the Literature


Reviewing the literature

REVIEWING THE LITERATURE

  • Integral part of research process

  • In initial stages it helps to:

    • Establish theoretical roots

    • Clarify ideas

    • Develop research methodology

  • Later serves to:

    • Consolidate your knowledge

    • Integrate your findings with existing knowledge


Literature review

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Most (graduation) proposals suffer from superficial understanding of the issue at stake

  • If understanding about a subject does not go beyond ‘common knowledge’ => research ideas will be superficial and not state-of-the-art


Literature review helps

LITERATURE REVIEW HELPS:

  • Clarify your research problem/question

    • Paradox, chicken-egg problem

    • Iterative process

  • Improve research methodology

    • Methodologies used by others, pros/cons

  • Broaden knowledge base

    • What are findings around your RQ?

    • What theories have been put forward?

    • What are gaps in existing literature?

  • Contextualize findings

    • How do your findings fit into the existing body of knowledge?


Literature review1

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Before writing a research proposal you are able to give at least an informed answer to:

    • What is already known with respect to my subject?

    • What theories and concepts are relevant?

    • What research strategies and methods have been employed by others performing similar research?

    • What questions have remained unanswered/ what suggestions for further research have been done?

    • What researchers are important with respect to this topic?


Literature review how to

LITERATURE REVIEW: HOW TO

  • Search existing literature in your area of interest

  • Review this existing literature

  • Develop a theoretical framework for your RQ

  • Develop conceptual framework


Search

SEARCH


Assessing literature quality

ASSESSING LITERATURE QUALITY

  • How can I see if it is a good source?

  • Plenty of material => even more difficult to assess

  • Not that easy


Indicators for a good source

INDICATORS FOR A GOOD SOURCE

  • Carries a title

  • Has the author/s clearly listed

  • Uses sources according to an international standard

    • reference list & in-text referencing according to e.g., APA

  • Is published at credible publishing houses

  • Is referenced by other researchers too

  • If 1-3 are not met, the source is of questionable quality => refrain from using it

  • If 4-5 are met, the source is of good quality => use it!


Indicators for a good source1

INDICATORS FOR A GOOD SOURCE

  • Carries a title

  • Has the author/s clearly listed

  • Uses sources according to an international standard

    • reference list & in-text referencing according to e.g., APA

  • Is published at credible publishing houses

  • Is referenced by other researchers too

  • Has a summary or abstract

  • Is incorporated in electronic library collections

  • Is balanced in its word use and uses factual argumentation in stead of rhetoric


Web sources

WEB SOURCES

  • Easy to find -> hard to assess for quality

  • Search engine can find a site but does not evaluate it

  • Web sources can be published by anybody => no peer review, no editorial board

  • Many web sources have their own agenda

  • Need to cross-check

  • Download all material found on the Internet


Sources

SOURCES

  • http://scholar.google.com

  • http://portal.acm.org

  • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org

  • http://sciencedirect.com

  • Conference paper => less time to prepare, less time to review, more recent, limited scope

  • Journal paper => more preparation, strict review process, established knowledge, easier to generalize

  • Book chapter => even more established knowledge but no peer review


Credible publishing houses

CREDIBLE PUBLISHING HOUSES

  • ACM

  • IEEE

  • Elsevier

  • Springer

  • Taylor & Francis

  • SAGE

  • McGraw Hill

  • Oxford University Press


Searching vs finding

SEARCHING vs. FINDING

  • Search easy but Find not easy Main problems:

    • Sticking to the obvious

    • Using tutor cited literature

    • Inefficient search strategies

    • Content is not possible to be accessed


Efficient literature review strategies

EFFICIENT LITERATURE REVIEW STRATEGIES

  • Search – find - evaluate

  • RQ, general knowledge, literature => derive keywords

  • Use specialized, credible sources Select sources in comparable context

  • After having compiled a list of articles => evaluate & prioritize


Article evaluation

ARTICLE EVALUATION

  • Evaluate quality based on the afore mentioned indicators => how many indicators does it satisfy?

  • Read abstract => is it interesting for my RQ? If yes => read conclusions => still interesting?

  • Answer the question: ‘This source I can use for my research, because it gives the following information:...’

  • Only now you read the whole article


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