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Assessment Of Exceptional Students. Part One: Chapter Two. Why Assess. Initial identification (screening) Used to identify individuals who may need additional evaluation or help Can be used to identify children at-risk (infants & toddlers)

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Assessment Of Exceptional Students

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Assessment Of Exceptional Students

Part One:

Chapter Two


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Why Assess

  • Initial identification (screening)

    • Used to identify individuals who may need additional evaluation or help

    • Can be used to identify children at-risk (infants & toddlers)

  • Determination & evaluation of programs & strategies (prereferral assessment)

    • Assists in designing interventions & monitoring their progress

    • Assessment data gathered before a referral – can provide information to document the need for a formal referral

    • The DIBELS is widely used in this area to monitor reading interventions

  • Determination of Current Performance Level & Educational Need

    • Determine needs, strengths, weaknesses & teaching strategies – suspected disability

    • Progress in general education curriculum

    • Present levels of performance

  • Decisions about Eligibility

    • Labeling students is required by the IDEA 04

    • Definition & Assessment Profile for Selected Exceptionalities – pg. 16 in Operating Standards


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Why Assess

  • Development of the Individualized Education Program

    • IDEA 04 requires transition needs be identified in a student’s IEP by age 16

    • Short-term objectives & benchmarks no longer required for majority of students but piloted in some states

    • Determination of Goals & Benchmarks/Objectives

      • Benchmarks/Objectives

    • Monitoring & Reporting Progress ( Evaluation of Goals & Objectives) – This is my primary area of concern for this course

      • Determination of objective criteria

      • Appropriate evaluation procedure

      • Schedule for evaluation goals and objectives

  • Decisions about Program Placement

    • Assessment information can help determine a student’s Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)


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How Is The Process Initiated

  • Preliminary assessment data should be collected first

  • Referrals may be made to request assistance

  • If a student is referred they will more than likely be eligible for special ed.

  • Can you create a model for the prereferral to identification process?


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What Procedures Should Be Used

  • Norm-Referenced Tests: Types of Scores, Scoring & Interpretation

    • Norm-referenced test

    • Normative or standardization sample

    • Age scale

    • Point scales

    • Raw score

    • Derived scores

  • Types of Scores

    • Age & Grade Equivalents

      • Developmental scores

    • Quartiles, Deciles & Percentiles

      • Percentile rank

    • Standard Scores

      • Mean

      • Standard deviation

      • Z score

      • Deviation IQs

      • Scaled scores

      • T scores

      • Stanine & normal curve equivalent


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What Procedures Should Be Used

  • Scoring Norm-Referenced Tests

    • Raw scores are obtained by norm-referenced tests

    • Educational & Psychological Testing (AERA 1999)

  • Interpreting Norm-Referenced Tests

    • Consider the task demands of the test itself

    • Standards of Educational & Psychological Testing (AERA 1999)

  • Criterion-Referenced Tests & Curriculum-Based Assessment

    • Criterion-referenced test (CRT)

    • Curriculum-based assessment (CBA)

    • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)

  • Power Versus Speed Tests – Many tests are a combination

    • Power test

    • Speed test


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What Procedures Should Be Used

  • Individual Versus Group Tests

    • Both individual and group testing have their place in the assessment process

  • Other Assessment Procedures

    • Checklists & observation

  • School Records

  • Direct Interviews

  • Parent Interviews

    • Omnibus interview

    • Behavior-specific interview

    • Problem-solving interview

  • Medical & Developmental Histories

  • Error Analysis – Useful but … Ask students how they perform tasks – Have them “walk through” the process

  • Use of Portfolios

    • Alternative assessment procedures have gained popularity

    • Informal or Formal procedures

    • Summative or Formative assessment


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Who Should Asses

  • Teachers should always be involved in the assessment process

  • Special ed. & General ed. Teachers

  • Parent information should be included

When Should Assessment Be Conducted

  • Dependent on the questions “who will asses” and “why asses”

  • When noticing individuals who may need more help, conduct prereferral intervention or further assessment

  • Notify parents of what is happening


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What Should Be Done With The Results

  • Knowledge of what to do with results prior to assessment is necessary.

  • Dependent on school and educational setting

An Assessment Model

  • Prereferral component

  • Postreferral component

  • All students receiving services under IDEA 04 go through the postreferral component


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