assessment of exceptional students
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Assessment Of Exceptional Students. Part One: Chapter Two. Why Assess. Initial identification (screening) Used to identify individuals who may need additional evaluation or help Can be used to identify children at-risk (infants & toddlers)

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why assess
Why Assess
  • Initial identification (screening)
    • Used to identify individuals who may need additional evaluation or help
    • Can be used to identify children at-risk (infants & toddlers)
  • Determination & evaluation of programs & strategies (prereferral assessment)
    • Assists in designing interventions & monitoring their progress
    • Assessment data gathered before a referral – can provide information to document the need for a formal referral
    • The DIBELS is widely used in this area to monitor reading interventions
  • Determination of Current Performance Level & Educational Need
    • Determine needs, strengths, weaknesses & teaching strategies – suspected disability
    • Progress in general education curriculum
    • Present levels of performance
  • Decisions about Eligibility
    • Labeling students is required by the IDEA 04
    • Definition & Assessment Profile for Selected Exceptionalities – pg. 16 in Operating Standards
why assess3
Why Assess
  • Development of the Individualized Education Program
    • IDEA 04 requires transition needs be identified in a student’s IEP by age 16
    • Short-term objectives & benchmarks no longer required for majority of students but piloted in some states
    • Determination of Goals & Benchmarks/Objectives
      • Benchmarks/Objectives
    • Monitoring & Reporting Progress ( Evaluation of Goals & Objectives) – This is my primary area of concern for this course
      • Determination of objective criteria
      • Appropriate evaluation procedure
      • Schedule for evaluation goals and objectives
  • Decisions about Program Placement
    • Assessment information can help determine a student’s Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
how is the process initiated
How Is The Process Initiated
  • Preliminary assessment data should be collected first
  • Referrals may be made to request assistance
  • If a student is referred they will more than likely be eligible for special ed.
  • Can you create a model for the prereferral to identification process?
what procedures should be used
What Procedures Should Be Used
  • Norm-Referenced Tests: Types of Scores, Scoring & Interpretation
    • Norm-referenced test
    • Normative or standardization sample
    • Age scale
    • Point scales
    • Raw score
    • Derived scores
  • Types of Scores
    • Age & Grade Equivalents
      • Developmental scores
    • Quartiles, Deciles & Percentiles
      • Percentile rank
    • Standard Scores
      • Mean
      • Standard deviation
      • Z score
      • Deviation IQs
      • Scaled scores
      • T scores
      • Stanine & normal curve equivalent
what procedures should be used6
What Procedures Should Be Used
  • Scoring Norm-Referenced Tests
    • Raw scores are obtained by norm-referenced tests
    • Educational & Psychological Testing (AERA 1999)
  • Interpreting Norm-Referenced Tests
    • Consider the task demands of the test itself
    • Standards of Educational & Psychological Testing (AERA 1999)
  • Criterion-Referenced Tests & Curriculum-Based Assessment
    • Criterion-referenced test (CRT)
    • Curriculum-based assessment (CBA)
    • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
  • Power Versus Speed Tests – Many tests are a combination
    • Power test
    • Speed test
what procedures should be used7
What Procedures Should Be Used
  • Individual Versus Group Tests
    • Both individual and group testing have their place in the assessment process
  • Other Assessment Procedures
      • Checklists & observation
    • School Records
    • Direct Interviews
    • Parent Interviews
      • Omnibus interview
      • Behavior-specific interview
      • Problem-solving interview
    • Medical & Developmental Histories
    • Error Analysis – Useful but … Ask students how they perform tasks – Have them “walk through” the process
    • Use of Portfolios
      • Alternative assessment procedures have gained popularity
      • Informal or Formal procedures
      • Summative or Formative assessment
who should asses
Who Should Asses
  • Teachers should always be involved in the assessment process
  • Special ed. & General ed. Teachers
  • Parent information should be included

When Should Assessment Be Conducted

  • Dependent on the questions “who will asses” and “why asses”
  • When noticing individuals who may need more help, conduct prereferral intervention or further assessment
  • Notify parents of what is happening
what should be done with the results
What Should Be Done With The Results
  • Knowledge of what to do with results prior to assessment is necessary.
  • Dependent on school and educational setting

An Assessment Model

  • Prereferral component
  • Postreferral component
  • All students receiving services under IDEA 04 go through the postreferral component
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