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Add a Little SPICE (& HERBS) to Your Life!. Alice Henneman, MS, RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska –Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County Download this PowerPoint and a related handout at: http://lancaster.unl.edu/food/spiceherb.shtml.

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Add a Little

SPICE

(& HERBS)

to Your Life!


Alice Henneman, MS, RDExtension Educator

University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County

Download this PowerPoint and a related handout at:

http://lancaster.unl.edu/food/spiceherb.shtml

2003, updated May 2008, PowerPoint 2003



Archeologists estimate that by 50,000 B.C. primitive man had discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better.

Source: American Spice Trade Association


“Spice” vs. “Herb” discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better

Spices come from the bark (cinnamon), root (ginger, onion, garlic), buds (cloves, saffron), seeds (yellow mustard, poppy, sesame), berry (black pepper), or the fruit (allspice, paprika) of tropical plants and trees.

Herbsare leaves of low-growing shrubs. Examples are parsley, chives, marjoram, thyme, basil, caraway, dill, oregano, rosemary, savory, sage and celery leaves. These can be used fresh or dried. Dried forms may be whole, crushed, or ground.

Many dehydrated vegetable seasonings are available. These include onion, garlic … and shallots.

Seasoning blends are mixtures of spices/herbs.

Source: Ann A. Hertzler, PhD, RD, Herbs and Spices, Virginia Cooperative Extension


Contents
Contents discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep


Contents1
Contents discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep


Spices discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better and herbs can help retain flavor in your foods while cutting back on fat, sugar and salt.


“ … removing a tablespoon of fat removes about 10 grams of fat and 100 calories —an amount which could represent a 10 pound weight loss in a year.The calories in herbs and spices are far less than in breadings, batters, gravies, sauces and fried foods.”

Source: Ann A. Hertzler, PhD, RD, Herbs and Spices, Virginia Cooperative Extension


Reduce or eliminate sugar by using sweet-tasting spices: of fat and 100 calories

  • Allspice

  • Anise

  • Cardamom

  • Cinnamon

  • Cloves

  • Ginger

  • Mace

  • Nutmeg

1 tablespoon sugar = 45 calories


Savory flavors and flavors with “bite,” of fat and 100 calories are the most effective in replacing thetaste of salt. Examples include:

  • Black pepper

  • Garlic powder

  • Curry powder

  • Cumin

  • Dill seeds

  • Basil

  • Ginger

  • Coriander

  • Onion powder

Source: American Spice Trade Association


Omit the salt when cooking pasta and flavor with basil, oregano, parsley and pepper or use an Italian seasoning blend.


Use POWDERED garlic or onion rather than their SALT form. oregano, parsley and pepper or use an Italian seasoning blend.

Generally, use half as much of the powdered form.



Fascinating flavor fact
Fascinating flavor fact: are listed among the ingredients.

The reason for Columbus’ voyage in 1492 was to seek a more direct passage to the rich spices of the Orient.


Contents2
Contents are listed among the ingredients.

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep


Experiment with the following flavor and food combinations to add pizzazz to your meals

Experiment with the following are listed among the ingredients.flavor and food combinations to add pizzazz to your meals.

  • Source: Flavor and Food Combinations adapted from information provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute


Beef are listed among the ingredients.

  • Bay leaf

  • Marjoram

  • Nutmeg

  • Onion

  • Pepper

  • Sage

  • Thyme


Pork are listed among the ingredients.

  • Garlic

  • Onion

  • Sage

  • Pepper

  • Oregano


Lamb are listed among the ingredients.

  • Curry powder

  • Garlic

  • Rosemary

  • Mint


Poultry are listed among the ingredients.

  • Ginger

  • Marjoram

  • Oregano

  • Paprika

  • Poultry seasoning

  • Rosemary

  • Sage

  • Tarragon

  • Thyme


Fish are listed among the ingredients.

  • Curry powder

  • Dill

  • Dry mustard

  • Marjoram

  • Paprika

  • Pepper


Carrots are listed among the ingredients.

  • Cinnamon

  • Cloves

  • Dill

  • Ginger

  • Marjoram

  • Nutmeg

  • Rosemary

  • Sage


Corn are listed among the ingredients.

  • Cumin

  • Curry powder

  • Onion

  • Paprika

  • Parsley


Green Beans are listed among the ingredients.

  • Dill

  • Curry powder

  • Marjoram

  • Oregano

  • Tarragon

  • Thyme


Greens are listed among the ingredients.

  • Onion

  • Pepper


Potatoes are listed among the ingredients.

  • Dill

  • Garlic

  • Onion

  • Paprika

  • Parsley

  • Sage


Summer are listed among the ingredients.Squash

  • Dill

  • Garlic

  • Onion

  • Paprika

  • Parsley

  • Sage


Winter Squash are listed among the ingredients.

  • Cinnamon

  • Ginger

  • Nutmeg

  • Onion


Tomatoes are listed among the ingredients.

  • Basil

  • Bay leaf

  • Dill

  • Marjoram

  • Onion

  • Oregano

  • Parsley

  • Pepper


Fascinating flavor fact1
Fascinating flavor fact: are listed among the ingredients.

In early Rome, young suitors wore a sprig of basil to signal their marital intentions.

Source: American Spice Trade Association


Contents3
Contents are listed among the ingredients.

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep


When you don’t have a spice or herb blend called for in a recipe, try the following combinations as a substitution.


For each 1 teaspoon of apple pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of:

  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon

  • 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg


For each 1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of these ground spices:

  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon

  • 1/4 teaspoon ginger

  • 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg

  • 1/8 teaspoon allspice


  • For each 1-1/2 teaspoon COMBINATION of these ground spices:of Italian seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of:

    • 1/4 teaspoon EACH of crumbled, dried

      • oregano leaves

      • marjoram leaves

      • basil leaves

    • 1/8 teaspoon rubbed sage


For each 1 teaspoon of poultry seasoning, substitute COMBINATION of these ground spices:a COMBINATION of:

  • 3/4 teaspoon ground sage

  • 1/4 teaspoon ground thyme


When substituting herbs, you may COMBINATION of these ground spices:be more successful substituting FRESH herbs for DRIED herbs, than the other way around.


Fascinating flavor fact2
Fascinating flavor fact: COMBINATION of these ground spices:

“Cilantro” refers to the leaf of the coriander plant while “coriander” refers to a spice made from the seed of the same plant. “Cilantro” and “coriander” are not interchangeable in recipes.


Contents4
Contents COMBINATION of these ground spices:

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep



If possible, start with a tested recipe from a reliable source.

If creating a recipe, begin by trying one or two spices or herbs.


The amount to add varies with the: source.

  • Type of recipe

  • Spice or herb

  • Personal preference


Approximate EQUIVALENT amounts of different forms of herbs are:

  • 1 tablespoon finely cut fresh herbs

  • 1 teaspoon crumbled dried herbs

  • 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon ground dried herbs


Begin with 1/4 teaspoon of most ground spices or ground dried herbs for these amounts; adjust as needed:*

  • 4 servings

  • 1 pound of meat

  • 1 pint (2 cups of soup or sauce)

    *Remember: Use more herbs if using a crumbled dried or a fresh form.

Source: www.spiceadvice.com



When doubling a recipe: powder; adjust as needed.

  • DO NOT double spices and herbs.

  • Increase amounts by 1-1/2 times.

  • Taste, add more if needed.


Fascinating flavor fact3
Fascinating flavor fact: powder; adjust as needed.

During the Middle Ages, ladies embroidered a sprig of thyme into scarves they gave to their wandering knights.


Contents5
Contents powder; adjust as needed.

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep



  • As a general rule, add herbs influences their flavor.FRESH HERBS near the end of cooking or just before serving

  • Prolonged heating can cause flavor and aroma losses.


More delicate fresh herbs can be added a minute or two before the end of cooking or sprinkled on food before serving. Examples include:

  • Basil

  • Chives

  • Cilantro

  • Dill leaves

  • Parsley

  • Marjoram

    • Mint


Less delicate fresh herbs can be added about the last 20 minutes of cooking. Examples include:

  • Dill seeds

  • Rosemary

  • Tarragon

  • Thyme


For some foods such as breads, batters, etc., you may have to add fresh herbs at the beginning of the cooking process.


Follow these tips and techniques for best to add fresh herbs at the beginning of the cooking process. taste when adding DRIED SPICES and HERBS.


WHOLE dried spices and herbs (such as whole allspice and bay leaves):

  • Release flavors slower than crumbled or ground ones.

  • Are ideal for dishes cooking an hour or more, such as soups and stews.


GROUND dried spices and herbs: bay leaves):

  • Release their flavor quickly.

  • May taste best in shorter-cooking recipes or added nearer the end of longer-cooking ones.


CRUMBLED dried herbs may differ: bay leaves):

  • Milder herbs (such as basil) may flavor best added toward end of cooking.

  • More robust herbs (such as thyme) can stand longer cooking periods.


Freshly grinding spices (such as black pepper and nutmeg) provide more flavor than buying them already ground.


AVOID sprinkling dried spices and herbs directly from container into a steaming pot to prevent moisture from entering the container.

Use a DRY spoon to measure spices and herbs from a container.



Warning: removal at the end of cooking. Remove bay leaves at the end of cooking. They can be a choking hazard if left in foods and can cause harmful cuts and scratches in your throat and esophagus.


For UNCOOKED foods, add both removal at the end of cooking.FRESH and DRIED spices and herbs several hours before serving to allow flavors to blend.


Contents6
Contents removal at the end of cooking.

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep



Heat herbs

Moisture

Light

Air

To prevent flavor and color loss, AVOID:


Store in tightly covered containers. herbs

Store in a dark place away from sunlight, such as inside a cupboard or drawer.


AVOID storage above dishwasher, microwave, stove, refrigerator or near a sink or heating vent.

If storing in an open spice rack,store away from heat, light and moisture.


Refrigerator freezer storage

Refrigerate paprika, chili powder and red pepper for best color retention, especially in summer or hotter climates.

Spices and herbs can get wet if condensation forms when a container from a refrigerator or freezer is left open in a humid kitchen.

Refrigerator/freezer storage?


Contents7
Contents color retention, especially in summer or hotter climates.

  • Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips

  • Flavor and Food Combinations

  • Common Substitutions

  • General Rules for Amounts

  • When to Add Spices and Herbs

  • Storing Spices and Herbs

  • How Long to Keep



As a general rule, keep: time to TOSS your spices and herbs.

  • 1 year: Herbs or GROUND spices

  • 2 years: WHOLE spices

  • Buy a smaller container until you determine how fast you’ll use a particular spice or herb.



  • Check a whole spice ― such as a clove or cinnamon stick ― by breaking, crushing or scraping it before smelling it.


AVOID smelling your hand. If the aroma is fresh, rich and immediate, it can still flavor foodsPEPPER or CHILI POWDER as they can irritate your nose.


“Pepper is small in quantity and great in virtue.” your hand. If the aroma is fresh, rich and immediate, it can still flavor foods

- Plato


Initial quality influences shelf life. your hand. If the aroma is fresh, rich and immediate, it can still flavor foods

Label date of purchase on container with a permanent marking pen.


In conclusion
In conclusion ... your hand. If the aroma is fresh, rich and immediate, it can still flavor foods

“Spice a dish with love and it pleases every palate.”

- Plautus


Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture.

University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.


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