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Education and Development. Globalization & Education: The Coming of the Global-Competition State & its Educational Consequences. Wing-kwong Tsang Ho Tim Bldg. Room 416; Ext. 6922; [email protected]; www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~wktsang.

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Education and development
Education and Development

Globalization & Education:

The Coming of the Global-Competition State & its Educational Consequences

Wing-kwong Tsang

Ho Tim Bldg. Room 416; Ext. 6922;

[email protected]; www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~wktsang


Globalization and the advent of the empire a historical account
Globalization and the Advent of the Empire: A Historical Account

  • The constitution of the United Nations in 1945

  • The constitution of the bipolar world system between the “Free World” and the “Communist Bloc” in post-war era

    • The International Monetary and Financial Conference was held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1944

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF) held its inaugural meeting in 1946

    • World Bank formally began operations in 1946

    • General Agreement for Trade and Tariff (GATT) was established in 1948. In 1995, it transformed to World Trade Organization (WTO)

    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1950


Globalization and the advent of the empire a historical account1
Globalization and the Advent of the Empire: A Historical Account

  • The emergence of the “Third World” and the tri-polar world system in the 1970s

  • The first meeting of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was held in 1960. The oil crisis in the 1970s triggered by the Arab oil embargo in 1973 and the outbreak of the Iranian Revolution in 1979.

  • The liberalization of the authoritarian regimes among socialist states in the 1980s

  • The collapses of the soviet bloc in 1989


Globalization and the advent of the empire a historical account2
Globalization and the Advent of the Empire: A Historical Account

  • The US’s “just wars” in the 1990s

    • The first Gulf War in 1990-91

    • Civil War in Somali in 1993

    • War in Bosnia in 1993

    • War in Afghan in 2001

    • The second Gulf War in 2003

  • The constitution of the Capitalist Empire in the 21st century


The nature of the empire of the 21 st century
The Nature of the Empire of the 21 Accountst century

  • “Empire refers to a new form of sovereignty that has succeeded the sovereignty of the nation-state, an unlimited form of sovereignty that knows no boundaries or, rather, knows only flexible, mobile boundaries.” (Hardt and Negri, 2003, p. 109)

  • “Perhaps the most significant symptom of this transformation is the development of the so-called right to intervention. … What stands behind this intervention is not just a permanent state of emergence and exception, but a permanent state emergency and exception justified by the appeal to essential value of justuice.” (Hardt and Negri, 2000, p. 18)


The nature of the empire of the 21 st century1
The Nature of the Empire of the 21 Accountst century

  • The constitution of the Empire has embodied three classic forms of government: monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy

    • Monarchical constituents: the US Government and in particular the Pentagon, the WTO, the World Bank, and the IMF.

    • Aristocratic constituents: the G8, the Security Council of the UN, and major transnational corporations

    • Democratic constituents: General Assembly of the UN and various forms of Non-Government Organization (NGO)


Political Consequence of the Advent of the Empire I: The Crises and Opportunities of Democratic Counter-power Movement

  • Erosion of the basis of national democracy

    • Democracy as unity of identity of the people

    • Democracy as representation of the people

    • Democracy as measure of democratic rule of the people

  • The limitations of national counter-power movement

    • The separation of resistance, insurrection and constituent power

    • The paradox of national insurrection in the international context of the Cold war


Political Consequence of the Advent of the Empire I: The Crises and Opportunities of Democratic Counter-power Movement

  • Hardt and Negri’s proposal of democratic counterpower of the multitude

    • “The multitude is an active social agent – a multiplicity that acts. The multitude is not a unity, as is the people, but in contrast to the masses and the mob we can see that it is organized. It is an active, self-organizing agent.” (Hardt and Negri, 2003, p.114)

    • The advent of the Empire spawns crisis to national insurrection but opportunity to global counter-power movement of the multitude


Political Consequence of the Advent of the Empire II: Retreat of the Welfare State & the Coming of the Global-Competition State

  • The crisis of external governance of the nation-state

    • The dominance of international institutions, e.g. WTO, MIF, World Bank, etc.

    • The constitution of the “Washington Consensus”


Political Consequence of the Advent of the Empire II: Retreat of the Welfare State & the Coming of the Global-Competition State

  • The constitution of the “Washington Consensus”

    • Fiscal discipline

    • Public expenditure priority

    • Tax reform

    • Financial liberalization

    • Exchange rates

    • Trade liberalization

    • Foreign direct investment

    • Privatization

    • Deregulation

    • Property rights


Political Consequence of the Advent of the Empire II: Retreat of the Welfare State & the Coming of the Global-Competition State

  • The crisis of internal governance of the sovereignty of the nation-state

    • Fiscal crisis of the post-war welfare state in the 1980s

    • The collapse of the state corporatism between union and corporation

    • The retreat of economic nationalism and the rise of the “competition state”

    • The coming to power of the New-Right government in the US and UK in the 1980s


Political Consequence of the Advent of the Empire II: Retreat of the Welfare State & the Coming of the Global-Competition State

  • The crisis of internal governance of the sovereignty of the nation-state

    • The Neo-Classical Public Sector Reform movement

      • Deregulation

      • Privatization

      • Marketization


Is education reform as the panacea for the global competition state
Is Education Reform as the Panacea for the Global-Competition State?

  • Assault on public-sector education: The rhetoric of falling standard and mediocracy

    • In the UK, publications of the Black Papers (1969-1977) and the Parent Charters (1974-1984) in the 1970s

    • In the US, publication of the A Nation at Risk in 1983

    • Berliner & Biddle (1995) The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America’s Public Schools.


Is education reform as the panacea for the global competition state1
Is Education Reform as the Panacea for the Global-Competition State?

  • Education reform as panacea for global-competition state in the global-informational context

    • Education reform in the UK

      • Education Reform Act, 1988

      • The Learning Age, 1998

    • Education reform in the US

      • Goal 2000 Act, 1994

      • No Child Left Behind Act, 2001

    • Education Reform in South Korea:

      • Lifelong Learning

      • Education in the information age


Is education reform as the panacea for the global competition state2
Is Education Reform as the Panacea for the Global-Competition State?

  • Education reform as panacea for global-competition state in the global-informational context

    • Education Reform in Singapore:

      Education for Learning Society in the 21st Century (2000)

    • Education Reform in Taiwan

      教育改革行動方案, 1998

    • Education Reform in HKSAR

      • EC (Sept. 1997) Quality School Education: ECR#7

      • EC (Sept. 2000) Education for Life and Education through Life

      • CDC (June 2001) Learning to Learn


The paradigm x in global education reforms education policy of the competition state
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Global Education Reforms: Education Policy of the Competition State

  • Instrumental Economicism: The underlying principle of the Paradigm X

    • Dominance of instrumental rationality: Extrinsic and instrumental value of competitiveness replaces intrinsic and substantive value of education

    • Economicism: Education is subject to the prescription of economicism in all aspect


The paradigm x in global education reforms
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Global Education Reforms:

  • Quasi-market restructuring: The operational mechanism of the Paradigm X

    • The quasi-market restructuring: Restructuring project of education system by transforming state controlled and professional-led schooling structure into consumer-led schooling system which resembles as much as possible the neo-liberal free market

    • Demand-side of the quasi market: Enhancing choice

      • Amalgamation of public and private school-sectors, e.g. voucher system

      • Public schools: Privatization, e.g. opting-out or charter schools

      • Private schools: Incorporation into the public scheme of school-place allocation


The paradigm x in global education reforms1
The Paradigm Global-Competition State? X in Global Education Reforms:

  • Quasi-market restructuring: The operational mechanism of the Paradigm X

    • Supply side of the quasi market

      • Devolution and de-regulation of public schools

      • Re-regulation of incorporated private schools

    • Establishing the medium of exchange in quasi-market: Hegemony of performativity

      • Standardization according to the imperatives of the economic system

      • Standardization according to the imperative of the administrative system


The paradigm x in global education reforms2
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Global Education Reforms:

  • Quasi-market restructuring: The operational mechanism of the Paradigm X

    • The quality-assurance hegemony: The big-market-&-great-government education system

      • Manufacturing measures of quality: Performance indicators, targets, tasks, criteria, benchmarks, etc.

      • Constituting mechanism of auditing: Quality assurance inspection, school-self evaluation scheme, target-related assessment, criterion-referenced test, benchmark assessment, etc.

      • Building accountability mechanism: awards to students, teachers and schools, and penalty to students, teachers and schools

      • Constructing systemic and global normalization mechanism: School league tables, international comparisons, etc.


The paradigm x in global education reforms3
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Global Education Reforms:

  • Quasi-market restructuring: The operational mechanism of the Paradigm X

    • Individualization in education and destruction of the “social”

      • Individualization of the educated: Education as zero-sum game of separating the educable from the uneducable (Wexler’s thesis of education as social destruction process)

      • Individualization of the civil society (parents and families): Education as zero-sum game dominated by the parentocracy and that differentiating those parents with wealth and wish and those without (Whitty’s thesis of education of consumerism and Brown’s thesis of parentocracy)

      • Individualization of the teaching profession: Education as rat race among teachers for benchmarking and/or stratifying qualifications


The paradigm x in global education reforms4
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Global Education Reforms:

  • Quasi-market restructuring: The operational mechanism of the Paradigm X

    • Individualization in education and destruction of the “social”

      • Individualization of the school system: Education as zero-sum game among schools

        • Zero-sum game of financial resource among schools

        • Zero-sum game of educable students among schools

        • Zero-sum game of parentocrats (parents with wealth and wish) among schools

        • Zero-sum game of benchmarked teachers among schools

        • Game of publicity and customization among schools


The Paradigm Global-Competition State? Y in Global Education Reform: Education Policy of the “Learning State” & the “Learning Society”

  • Lifelong Learning for All & Collective Intelligence: The underlying principle of the Paradigm Y

    • Paradox in lifelong-learning policy:

      • Lifelong learning for productivity and employability for global economic competitiveness

      • Lifelong learning for Social inclusion, political empowerment, and citizenship in deliberative democracy


The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform: Education Policy of the “Learning State” & the “Learning Society”

  • Lifelong Learning for All & Collective Intelligence: The underlying principle of the Paradigm Y

    • Collective intelligence:

      “ Collective intelligence can be defined as empowerment through the development and pooling of intelligence to attain common goals or resolve common problems. It is inspired by a spirit of co-operation rather a Darwinian survival of the fittest. …It involves making a virtue of our mutual dependence and sociability which we will need to make a dominant feature of post-industrial society based on information, knowledge and lifelong learning.” (Brown & Lauder, 2001, p. 218-19)


The paradigm y in global education reform
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • Lifelong Learning for All & Collective Intelligence: The underlying principle of the Paradigm Y

    • Two constituents of collective intelligence

      • The capacity for intelligence: “The capacity for intelligence describes the raw materials on which the development of intelligence depends. It refers to the state of knowledge, scientific discovery, technology and learning techniques, on which societies can draw. It includes the knowledge and technological resources amassed in society in the form of books, journals, databases, computers and laboratories, and super-highways to name but a few.” (Brown & Lauder, 2001, p. 219)

      • Relations of trust: “Trust is used …to refer to whether the development and pooling of intelligence is reflected in the relationship between individuals, groups, and social classes that are embedded in classrooms, offices, shopfloors, household, neighborhoods, welfare policies and taxation system.” (Brown & Lauder, 2001, p.220)


The paradigm y in global education reform1
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • Societal policy of Lifelong Learning for Collective Intelligence: The operational mechanism of lifelong learning education for collective intelligence

    • Re-drawing the demarcation line between productive and unproductive labor

    • Re-formulation of rules for income distribution:

      • From winner-takes-all market mechanism to the mechanism of entitlement of “citizen’s wage”

      • “The entitlement of a citizen’s wage… is wage above the level of poverty eligible to all citizens, taking into account the number of dependents. The move to a citizen’s wage would mark a decisive step in freeing individuals from the material fear poverty while ending material exclusion based on race, gender or class. It provides one of the foundations of a society based on collective intelligence and gives expression to the way in which collective intelligence can be seen as a principle of social integration.” (Brown & Lauder, 2001, p. 235)


The paradigm y in global education reform2
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • The operational mechanism of lifelong learning education for collective intelligence

    • Education reform for lifelong learning for collective intelligence

      • Re-defining criteria for educational achievement

        • Moving away from methodological individualism of I.Q. test as sole measure of intelligence

        • Conceptualization of educational achievement with reference to multiple intelligences

        • Conceptualization of educational achievement with reference to collective intelligence

      • Re-designing curriculum and evaluation with reference to the conception of multiple intelligences and collective intelligence


The paradigm y in global education reform3
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • The operational mechanism of lifelong learning education for collective intelligence

    • Education reform for lifelong learning for collective intelligence

      • Re-structuring for multi-cultural education system

        • Replacing suppressive-common school system with inclusive-common school system

        • Replacing segregating and stratifying school system with comprehensive school system

        • Education for knowledge as well as identity


The paradigm y in global education reform4
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • The operational mechanism of lifelong learning education for collective intelligence

    • Education reform for lifelong learning for collective intelligence

      • Restructuring for “attested mobility” educational selection system

        • Replacing both “sponsored mobility” and “contest mobility” educational selection systems

        • Replacing with “attested mobility” educational selection system

        • “The challenge in a pluralist system of education is to juggle the need to pay attention to the particularity of cultural identity and yet create rules of competition which are fair for all groups. The need for fairness across groups is necessary because at the end of the day educational credentials will still be a prime determinant of career opportunities. For this reason we believe a new concept, that of attested mobility should be introduced into the discussion. To attest is to affirm or bear witness. In this context it draws attention to the link between a person’s cultural identity and educational performance.” (Brown & Lauder, 2001, p. 247)

        • Replacing principle of praise with principle of respect


The paradigm y in global education reform5
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • The operational mechanism of lifelong learning education for collective intelligence

    • Education reform for lifelong learning for collective intelligence

      • Restructuring for education system of equality of opportunity

        • Means-regarding equality of opportunity

          • Equality of access to education

          • Equality of education process

        • Prospect-regarding equality of opportunity

          • Equality of education result

          • Equality of education outcome


The paradigm y in global education reform6
The Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Global Education Reform:

  • The operational mechanism of lifelong learning education for collective intelligence

    • Restructuring higher education for lifelong learning for collective intelligence

      • Replacing upward spiral and stratification in higher education

      • Restructuring an open, inclusive, accommodating, flexible and affordable higher educational system


Paradigm x in education reform of hksar
Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Education Reform of HKSAR

  • Education Commission Report No.3 (ECR#3), 1988

  • Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS)

  • Public Sector Reform, 1989

  • ECR#4, 1990

  • Target-related assessment (TRA) and issuing “definite guidance” for MOI of secondary schools in 1998/99

  • The School Management Initiatives: Setting the Framework for Quality in Hong Kong Schools, 1991

  • Issuing Medium-of-Instruction Grouping Assessment (MIGA) to parents and secondary school


Paradigm x in education reform of hksar1
Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Education Reform of HKSAR

  • Education Commission Report No. 7, 1997

    • Quality indicators

    • Quality assurance mechanism

    • Quality school management

    • Quality Education Fund (QEF)

  • Establishing benchmarks fro IT teacher, 1998

  • Implementing MOI Guidance fro Secondary Schools, 1998

  • Implementing benchmarking assessments for English and Putonhau Teachers

  • Proposing to publicize HKCEE results of secondary schools in Secondary School Profile, 2000


Paradigm x in education reform of hksar2
Paradigm Global-Competition State?X in Education Reform of HKSAR

  • School-Based Management: Publication of Transforming Schools into Dynamic and Accountable Professional Learning Community: School-Based Management Consultation Document, 2000

  • Establishing School Value Added Information System (SVAIS) in 2002

  • Implementing “New” DSS, 2002

  • Issuing School Self-Evaluation mechanism, 2003


Paradigm y in education reform of hksar
Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Education Reform of HKSAR

  • Education Blueprint for the 21st Century: The Education Reform of the HKSAR, January 1999 to September 2000

  • Education reform proposal for Education for Life and Education Through Life

    • Through-road for foundation education

    • Unification and universalization of upper-secondary education

    • Liberalization of tertiary education


Paradigm y in education reform of hksar1
Paradigm Global-Competition State?Y in Education Reform of HKSAR

  • The outcome of the education reform

    • Contradictory policy measures on the through-road for foundation education

      • The reforms on the Primary One Allocation (POA)

      • The reforms of the SSPA

      • The proposed trough-train school scheme

    • The hung and delayed decision on reform 3-year upper secondary and 4-year of university education

    • The paralogism on Increase in Post-Secondary Education Opportunities

      Implementing self-financing associate degrees and community colleges


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