Borsós, K.; Benedict, M. G. University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Animation of experiments in modern quantum physics. Animations of three famous quantum experiments are presented. The violation of Bell inequalities with entangled photons,
of apparatus A
(A+,α)=cos(90-α)=sin α P(A+)=sin2α
belong to B
Strict correlation between the two outputs.
We need not even measure on the left if we know the result on the right.
But we can measure incompatible quantities (observaables) on the two sides:
N(A+,C-) < N(B+,C-) + N(A+,B-)
We cannot measure two different properties on the same particle, because measurment changes the state. Therefore we measure on pairs flying in different directions. The orientation of the crystal A, B or C is chosen randomly.
N(A+,C-) < N(B+,C-) + N(A+,B-) Bell
N(A+,C+) <N(B+,C+) + N(A+,B+)
Bold N is the number of measuredpairs.
E.gN(A+,C+)the number of pairs with outcome A+ on the left, and C+ on the right.
This can be measured!
Bell: N particle, because measurment changes the state. (A+,C+) <N(B+,C+) + N(A+,B+)
Bell P(A+,C+) <P(B+,C+) + P(A+,B+)
The unknown state to be teleported is carried by photon (1):
| 1 = ( | ↔ 1 + | ↕ 1 ),
with certain coefficients and :| |2 + | |2 = 1EPR-pair of photons: numbered 2 and 3 are created from a BBO crystal
Teleportation formalism particle, because measurment changes the state.
| tot = | 1 | - 23
= ( | ↔ 1 + | ↕ 1 ) (1/√2)( | ↔ 2 | ↕ 3 - | ↕ 2 | ↔ 3 )=
|tot = (1/√2)[ ( | ↔ 3 - | ↕ 3 ) | + 12 - ( | ↔ 3 + | ↕ 3) | - 12 –
+ ( | ↕ 3 + | ↔ 3 ) | + 12 + ( | ↕ 3 - | ↔ 3 ) | - 12
Photon (1) goes through a polarizer which establishes
a polarization direction, then goes to Alice.
Photon (3) arrives to Alice. Its entangled pair (3) goes to Bob
The joint state of (1) and (2) is measured by D1 and D2 at Alice
The two detectors have 4 different output results 0,1,2,3.
The result is communicated to Bob through a classical channel.
Bob performs an appropriate (unitary) transformation on photon (3)
depending on the message he received.
The resulting state of (3) will be identical to the state of (1it was.