Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces
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Incorporating Metadata into Search User Interfaces. Marti Hearst UC Berkeley. UCB Digital Libraries Seminar Oct 10, 2000. Web Search is Working!. Survey finds high user satisfaction Study by npd group. Web Search is Working!. Survey finds high user satisfaction

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Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

Incorporating Metadata into Search User Interfaces

Marti Hearst

UC Berkeley

UCB Digital Libraries Seminar

Oct 10, 2000


Web search is working

Web Search is Working!

Survey finds high user satisfaction

Study by npd group

From http://searchenginewatch.internet.com/reports/npd.html


Web search is working1

Web Search is Working!

Survey finds high user satisfaction

(a recent upswing – the decline was caused by an increase in # of pages indexed)

From http://searchenginewatch.internet.com/reports/npd.html


Web search is working2

Web Search is Working!

Why? Queries are still short!

Average query length currently ~2.4 words (Doug Cook, Inktomi)

From http://searchenginewatch.internet.com/reports/npd.html


My guess web search is successful at finding good starting points home pages

My guess: Web Search is Successful at Finding Good Starting Points (home pages)


Evidence

Evidence

  • Web search engines are heavily using

    • Link analysis

    • Page popularity

    • Interwoven categories

  • These all find dominant home pages


Consequences

Consequences

  • Web search engines are providing source selection!

    • A side note:

      A digital library issue as well. DL’s make people do this step explicitly. People don’t generally like this!

  • What happens at the site?

    • Follow hyperlinks or use site search


Following hyperlinks

Following Hyperlinks

  • Works great when it is clear where to go next

  • Frustrating when the desired directions are undiscernable or unavailable


Site search

Site Search

  • This is not getting good reviews

  • Large, disorganized results sets


An analogy

text search

An Analogy

hypertext


Analogy

Analogy

  • Hypertext:

    • A fixed number of choices of where to go next;

    • A glance at the map tells you where you are;

    • But may not go where you want to go.

      • To get from Topeka to Santa Fe, may have to go through Frostbite Falls

  • Site Search:

    • Can go anywhere;

    • But may get stuck, disoriented, in a crevass!


Goal an all tertrain vehicle

Goal: An All-Tertrain Vehicle

  • The best of both techniques

    • A vehicle that magically lays down track to suggest choices of where you want to go next based on what you’ve done so far and what you are trying to do

    • The tracks follow the lay of the land and go everywhere, but cross over the crevasses

    • The tracks allow you to back up easily


How to make an all tertrain vehicle

How to make an all-tertrain vehicle?

Two ideas:

Focus on the task.

Use metadata explicitly.


The importance of the task

The Importance of the Task

Results from HCI suggest the importance of taking the task into account.

  • Searching patent databases vs. Proving non-infringement

  • Browsing newsgroups vs. Finding the denial-of-service hacker

  • Getting all satellite news vs. Anticipating the competition


The importance of the task indirect evidence

The Importance of the Task: Indirect Evidence

  • How does Web page download time effect usability?

    • In one study, Spool found:

      (56kbit modem)

      • Amazon: 36 sec/page (avg)

      • About.com: 8 sec/page (avg)

    • Users rated the sites:

      • Fastest: Amazon

      • Slowest: About.com

  • Why?


The importance of the task1

The Importance of the Task

  • Perceived speed

    • Strong correlation between perceived speed and whether the users felt they completedtheir task

    • Strong correlation between perceived speed and whether the users felt they always knew what to do next (scent).


Metadata

Metadata


Metadata types

GeoRegion

+

Time/Date

+

Topic

+

Role

Metadata types


Content based metadata

Content-based Metadata

  • Medical text

    • Anatomy, Disease, Chemicals, Procedures…

  • Architectural images

    • Location, Style, Materials, Period …

  • Recipes!

    • Cuisine, Ingredients, Season, Calories …

  • Example:

    • SOAR vs. epicurious


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

soar.berkeley.edu/recipes


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

soar.berkeley.edu/recipes


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

soar.berkeley.edu/recipes


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

soar.berkeley.edu/recipes


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

www.epicurious.com


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

www.epicurious.com


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

www.epicurious.com


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

www.epicurious.com


Epicurious metadata usage

Epicurious Metadata Usage

  • Advantages

    • Creates combinations of metadata on the fly

    • Different metadata choices show the same information in different ways

    • Previews show how many recipes will result

    • Easy to back up

    • Supports several task types

      • ``Help me find a summer pasta,'' (ingredient type with event type),

      • ``How can I use an avocado in a salad?'' (ingredient type with dish type),

      • ``How can I bake sea-bass'' (preparation type and ingredient type)


Epicurious metadata usage1

Epicurious Metadata Usage

Problem: lacks integration with search


What about yahoo

What about Yahoo?

  • Routes through the metadata are

    • Predefined

    • Unstable (due to symbolic links)

    • Long (due to bad mixing of metadata)

    • Example: Where is Berkeley?

      • College and University > Colleges and Universities >United States > U > University of California > Campuses > Berkeley

      • U.S. States > California > Cities >Berkeley > Education > College and University > Public > UC Berkeley


Yahoo using metadata well

Yahoo using metadata well

Yahoo restaurant guide combines:

  • Region

  • Topic (restaurants)

  • Related Information

    • Other attributes (cuisines)

    • Other topics related in place and time (movies)


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

Yellow: geographic region

Green:restaurants&attributes

Red: related in place & time


Combining information types

Region

State

City

A & E

Film

Theatre

Music

Restaurants

California

Eclectic

Indian

French

Combining Information Types

Assumed task: looking for evening entertainment


Other possible combinations

Other Possible Combinations

  • Region + A&E

  • City + Restaurant + Movies

  • City + Weather

  • City + Education: Schools

  • Restaurants + Schools


Bookstore preview combinations

Bookstore preview combinations

  • topic + related topics

  • topic + publications by same author

  • topic + books of same type but related topic


Problems with metadata usage

Problems with Metadata Usage

  • Standard approaches

    • Paths are hand-edited, predefined

    • Not well-integrated with search

    • Not tailored to task as it develops

    • Not personalized

    • Not dynamic


A new project flamenco

A new project: FLAMENCO

FLexible Access using MEtadata in Novel COmbinations

  • Main ideas:

    • Make metadata an explicit part of the interface, but in a highly-usable manner

    • Preview and postview choices

    • Determine views dynamically and (semi) automatically, using a task-based model


Flamenco dynamic previews

Flamenco: Dynamic Previews

  • Medical example

    • Allow user to select metadata in any order

    • At each step, show different types of relevant metadata,

      • based on prior steps and personal history,

      • include # of documents

    • Previews restricted to only those metadata types that might be helpful


Asthma steroids

Asthma > Steroids

  • A steroid-induced acute psychosis in a child with athsma.

  • Management of steroid-dependent asthma with methotrexate.

  • Steroids

  • Pregnanes

  • Pregnadienes (5)

  • Prednisone (5)

  • Pregnenes

  • Budesonide (4)

  • Corticosterone (3)

  • Other Views

  • Admin & Dosage (50)

  • Drug Effects (20

  • Therapeutic Use (25)

  • Risk Factors (4)

  • More …

  • User Preferred

  • Musculoskeletal (4)

  • Drug Resistance (6)

  • All Categories (99)

99 Documents: [Sort by author] [Sort by popularity] [Sort by Steroids] [Cluster]

1. Effect of short-course budesonide on the bone turnover of asthmatic children.

2. Effect of prednisone on response to influenza virus vaccine in asthmatic children.


Asthma steroids1

Asthma > Steroids

  • A steroid-induced acute psychosis in a child with athsma.

  • Management of steroid-dependent asthma with methotrexate.

  • Steroids

  • Pregnanes

  • Pregnadienes (5)

  • Prednisone (5)

  • Pregnenes

  • Budesonide (4)

  • Corticosterone (3)

  • Other Views

  • Admin & Dosage (50)

  • Drug Effects (20

  • Therapeutic Use (25)

  • Risk Factors (4)

  • More …

  • User Preferred

  • Musculoskeletal (4)

  • Drug Resistance (6)

  • All Categories (99)

99 Documents: [Sort by author] [Sort by popularity] [Sort by Steroids] [Cluster]

1. Effect of short-course budesonide on the bone turnover of asthmatic children.

2. Effect of prednisone on response to influenza virus vaccine in asthmatic children.


Asthma steroids2

Asthma > Steroids

  • A steroid-induced acute psychosis in a child with athsma.

  • Management of steroid-dependent asthma with methotrexate.

  • Steroids

  • Pregnanes

  • Pregnadienes (5)

  • Prednisone (5)

  • Pregnenes

  • Budesonide (4)

  • Corticosterone (3)

  • Other Views

  • Admin & Dosage (50)

  • Drug Effects (20

  • Therapeutic Use (25)

  • Risk Factors (4)

  • More …

  • User Preferred

  • Musculoskeletal (4)

  • Drug Resistance (6)

  • All Categories (99)

99 Documents: [Sort by author] [Sort by popularity] [Sort by Steroids] [Cluster]

1. Effect of short-course budesonide on the bone turnover of asthmatic children.

2. Effect of prednisone on response to influenza virus vaccine in asthmatic children.


Asthma steroids admin dosage

Asthma > Steroids > Admin & Dosage

  • Dosage levels for asthmatic steroids: A survey.

  • Related Categories

  • Inhalators (40)

  • Emotional Effects (25)

  • Preferred Suppliers (30)

  • User Preferred

  • Musculoskeletal (0)

  • Drug Resistance (2)

  • All Categories (50)

  • Steroids

  • Pregnanes

  • Pregnadienes (3)

  • Prednisone (5)

50 Documents: [Sort by author] [Sort by popularity] [Sort by Dosage] [Cluster]

1. Optimal dosage levels for prednisone in the treatment of childhood asthma.

2. …


Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

Asthma > Steroids

Asthma > Steroids > Budesonide

Asthma > Steroids > Budesonide > Huang

Asthma > Huang > Budesonide

Other paths: back up and go forward


Dynamic metadata previews

Dynamic Metadata Previews

  • How different from Yahoo & Amazon?

    • Dynamically determine what to show next

      • Yahoo’s combos are predefined

      • Amazon’s are also predefined, and limited to taste and general topic only

  • A way to seamlessly integrate

    • Related topics

    • User preferences (personalization)

    • Context-sensitivity


Evaluation methodology

Evaluation Methodology

  • Regression Test

    • Select a set of tasks

      • Use these throughout the evaluation

    • Start with a baseline system

      • Evaluate using the test tasks

    • Add a feature

      • Evaluation again

      • Compare to baseline

      • Only retain those changes that improve results


Image search

Image Search

  • Content analysis is making strides

  • Rich hand-assigned metadata is available

  • But most search based on

    • Keyword matching (alltheweb/lycos multimedia)

    • Image-component based querying (QBIC)

    • Overall similarity to sample image (Blobworld)

    • Combo of keyword and image component


Image search what is the task

Image Search: What is the task?

  • Illustrate my slides?

    • “Find a crevasse”

    • Keyword match works pretty well

  • Find inspiration for an architectural design?

    • General similarity: maybe

    • But more control might be better


Blobworld

Blobworld


Architects image use

Architects’ Image Use

  • Work practices

    • Observations from personal design experience, and surveys of designers

    • Common activities for image use

      • Browsing most common at early stages of design

      • Collage making, sketching, pinning up on walls

  • Cultural and social practice

    • Designers learn how to do this in schools

    • Ways of communicating with images varies with organization

Slide by Ame Elliott


Current problems browsing images on line

Current Problems Browsing Images On-Line

  • Current on-line image collections offer few advantages over paper collections

    • Lose papers’ ease of manipulation

    • Little gain in accessibility

  • Queries are textual and must be well-formed

    • Not appropriate for the early phases of design when image browsing is critical

  • Image search engines don’t follow good UI design in general

    • Poor support for search starting points, collection visualization

  • Slide by Ame Elliott


    Creating browsing scenarios

    Creating Browsing Scenarios

    • Rationale

      • Learned about search strategies and how architects look for images now

    • 3 design scenarios presented to 2 architects

      • “Add handicapped ramp to entrance of suburban home”

      • “Design addition to children’s home in a Victorian mansion”

      • “Design a maritime cultural center on the beach in San Diego”

    Slide by Ame Elliott


    Results of interviews

    Results of Interviews

    • Were they believable professional problems?

      • Yes

    • How would they browse for images to help with these tasks?

      • Gathered lists of terms

      • Learned some ideas about strategies

      • High degree of consistency between interviewees

    Slide by Ame Elliott


    How different from medical example

    How different from medical example?

    • More open-ended

    • Easier to scan many images quickly

    • Tertrain metaphor not used here

      • Not narrowing down a large set

      • Rather, always viewing more images

      • A mechanism for “steering” through the metadata


    Spiro 40 000 art architecture images detailed metadata

    SPIRO:>40,000 art & architecture imagesDetailed metadata


    Spiro query form

    SPIRO Query Form


    Spiro query on subject church

    SPIRO query on Subject: church


    A better example

    A Better Example

    • Greatbuildings.com

    • Hyperlinks metadata together

    • But a small collection

      • ~1000 buildings

      • ~4500 images total


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    Incorporating metadata into search user interfaces

    www.greatbuildings.com


    The approach

    The Approach

    • Create an architecture that allows experimentation with different approaches

    • Add functionality in a stepwise fashion

    • Architecture task:

      • Emphasize images over text

      • Use greatbuildings-style interface as a reasonable baseline for comparison

      • Find out how much choice is too much

      • Find out whether explicit metadata is better than implicit more-like-this


    Summary

    Summary

    • Standard search is too flexible

    • Hyperlinks too restrictive

    • Flamenco:

      • Task-centric search interfaces

      • Integrate metadata with search

      • Dynamic previews

      • Easily retrace steps

      • Systematically determine what works for real users


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