Economical realism
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Economical Realism. Avril Styrman. Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology. Economical Realism. The Role of Economy in Ontology?. Economy. P rune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science. Economy. Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

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Economical realism

Economical Realism

Avril Styrman


Economical realism

Economically Empiricist Realism in Axiomatic Ontology


Economical realism1

Economical Realism


The role of economy in ontology

The Role of Economy in Ontology?


Economy

Economy

  • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science


Economy1

Economy

  • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

  • Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied


Economy2

Economy

  • Prune out the unnecessary part of metaphysics from science

  • Sustain the necessary part of metaphysics: only those interpretations are required which exist in any case, even if their existence is denied

  • Pruning out the unnecessary metaphysics and identifying the necessary metaphysics has the possibility to accelerate the progress of science


Economy3

Economy

  • What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied?


Economy4

Economy

  • What happens if an interpretation exists but its existence is denied?

  • The result is uncriticized metaphysics that runs loose


Economy5

Economy

  • “Find a scientific man who proposes to get along without any metaphysics... and you have found one whose doctrines are thoroughly vitiated by the crude and uncriticizedmetaphysics with which they are packed… Every man of us has a metaphysics, and has to have one; and it will influence his life greatly. Far better, then, that that metaphysics should be criticized and not be allowed to run loose.” Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Works of Charles Sanders Peirce 1.129


Economy6

Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing


Economy7

Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?


Economy8

Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?

  • The simplest interpretation is the best


Economy9

Economy

  • Theories/interpretations A and B explain exactly the same thing

  • What is the measure of fitness between A and B?

  • The simplest interpretation is the best

  • Economy might be the only available objective judge, but only when A and B explain exactly the same thing


Economy10

Economy

  • The importance of economy should not be underestimated, because there exists a jungle of interpretations in science, that effectively muddifies science


Realism

Realism


Realism1

Realism

  • Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations


Realism2

Realism

  • Economy/simplicity can be achieved by identifying the anti-realist interpretations in science, and pruning them out as uneconomical alternatives compared to the realist interpretations

  • Two main alternatives are the two competing groups of interrelated interpretations: realism and solipsism


Realism3

Realism

  • Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism


Realism4

Realism

  • Example 1: economy judging between the generic forms of ontological realism and solipsism

  • Example 2: economy judging between a realist interpretation and a solipsist intepretation in physics


Ontological realism

Ontological Realism


Ontological realism1

Ontological Realism


Solipsism

Solipsism


Solipsism1

Solipsism


Solipsism2

Solipsism


Realism or solipsism

Realism or Solipsism?

The solipsist must in any case postulate a dichotomy that is operationally identical to ontological realism


Realism or solipsism1

Realism or Solipsism?

Economy favours realism because solipsism is bothered with an unnecessary appendix: the universal mind


Realism or solipsism2

Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?


Realism or solipsism3

Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  • Because the lack of economy is disastrous


Realism or solipsism4

Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  • Because the lack of economy is disastrous

  • “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12


Realism or solipsism5

Realism or Solipsism?

  • Is ecomomy a big deal? Why fuzz over it?

  • Because the lack of economy is disastrous

  • “Accept one difficulty and the rest follows —a simple enough proceeding” Aristotle, Physics, bk.1, ch.2, 185a11-12

  • “…far happier they than such as wallow helplessly in a rich mud of conceptions” Charles Sanders Peirce, How to Make Our Ideas Clear, 1878


Realism vs solipsism in physics

Realism vs. Solipsism in Physics


Realism vs solipsism in physics1

Realism vs. Solipsism in Physics

  • An example where the measurement results can be given a realist and a solipsist interpretation


Locality and nonlocality

Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?


Locality and nonlocality1

Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri


Locality and nonlocality2

Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

    The speed of light: local Universe


Locality and nonlocality3

Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

    The speed of light: local Universe

    Faster than light: nonlocal Universe


Locality and nonlocality4

Locality and Nonlocality

  • What is the velocity of causal influences between spatially separated particulars?

    Earth - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alpha Centauri

    The speed of light: local Universe

    Faster than light: nonlocal Universe

    Instantaneous: nonlocal Universe


Nonlocality tests

Nonlocality Tests


Nonlocality tests1

Nonlocality Tests

  • J.A.W. van Houwelingen N. Gisin D. Salart, A. Baas and H. Zbinden. Spacelike separation in a Bell test assuming gravitationally induced collapses. Physical Review Letters, 100, 2008.

  • P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental tests of local realistic theories via Bell’s theorem. Physical Review Letters, 47: 460–463, 1981.

  • P. Grangier A. Aspect and G. Roger. Experimental realisation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohmgedankenexperiment: a new violation of Bell’s inequalities. Physical Review Letters, 49: 91–94, 1982.


Nonlocality tests2

Nonlocality Tests

  • Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source.


Nonlocality tests3

Nonlocality Tests

  • Particles a and b are in a singlet state in the source.

  • The source is manipulated and the particles start moving towards opposite directions


Nonlocality tests4

Nonlocality Tests

  • Particles a and b both can be measured to have some spin values: spin-up xor spin-down


Nonlocality tests5

Nonlocality Tests

  • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa:

    a-up & b-down

    a-down & b-up


Nonlocality tests6

Nonlocality Tests

  • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa:

    a-up & b-down a-up b-down

    a-down & b-up b-up -down


Nonlocality tests7

Nonlocality Tests

  • The spins of a and b are correlated: when the spin of a is measured to be spin-up, the spin of b is measured to spin-down, and vice versa:

    a-up & b-down no b-up & a-up

    a-down & b-up no a-down & b-down


Nonlocality tests8

Nonlocality Tests

  • How should the correlation be interpreted?


Nonlocality tests9

Nonlocality Tests

  • How should the correlation be interpreted?

  • The realist and the solipsist interpretations


The realist interpretation

The Realist Interpretation

  • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it


The realist interpretation1

The Realist Interpretation

  • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it

  • They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after


The realist interpretation2

The Realist Interpretation

  • The spins of a and b are correlated and there is nothing more into it

  • They are measured to be correlated because they have been correlated all along, in the singlet state and after

  • No superluminal influence is required, and thus locality is not threatened


The solipsist interpretation

The Solipsist Interpretation


The solipsist interpretation1

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand


The solipsist interpretation2

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand

  • Do not get surprised: it is solipsism!


The solipsist interpretation3

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • So awkward to a realist that it is hard to understand

  • Do not get surprised: it is solipsism!

  • Still strongly present in physics


The solipsist interpretation4

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • aand b do not have definite states at all before the measurement


The solipsist interpretation5

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • aand b do not have definite states at all before the measurement

  • The measurement itself determines the states of a and b


The solipsist interpretation6

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • aand b do not have definite states at all before the measurement

  • The measurement itself determines the states of a and b

  • They are in definite states only after the measurement


The solipsist interpretation7

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Before the measurement a and bare in a superposition:

    <b-up&a-down | a-up&b-down>


The solipsist interpretation8

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Before the measurement a and bare in a superposition:

    <b-up&a-down | a-up&b-down>

  • The superposition contains both possibilities


The solipsist interpretation9

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Before the measurement a and bare in a superposition:

    <b-up&a-down | a-up&b-down>

  • The superposition contains both possibilities

  • After the measurement they are either in the state b-up&a-down xor in a-up&b-down, but no longer in a superposition


The solipsist interpretation10

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Because the measurement of a determines the state of bfaster than light travels between a and b, superluminal or instantaneous influences are required. If you believe in the superposition idea, then nonlocality is the conclusion.

    Earth a- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - b Alpha Centauri


The solipsist interpretation11

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Superluminal and/or instantaneous influences are compatible with monism: all is together in some sense

    Earth a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - b Alpha Centauri

    ab


Speculation

Speculation

  • “The particles communicate faster than light.” Tim Maudlin. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002, p2.

  • “A pair of photons created together in the entangled state and allowed to separate remain, no matter how great the separation, causally connected to one another.” Ibid., p162.

  • “Two particles, having interacted in the past, form an inseparable whole, even if at present they are far apart.” Giuliano Toraldo Di Francia. A world of individual objects? In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press, p21–29, 1988, p28.


Speculation1

Speculation

  • “When a sparrow falls in Yougoslavia it has effects in the New Brunswick and on Saturn and in the most distant galaxy. Tim Maudlin. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2002, p22.

  • “Since any particle has certainly interacted with other particles in the past, the world turns out to be nonseparableinto individual and independent objects.” Giuliano Toraldo Di Francia. A world of individual objects? In Elena Castellani (ed.), Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press, p21–29, 1988, p28.


Speculation2

Speculation

  • The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s catparadox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent


Speculation3

Speculation

  • The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent

  • This is very near to solipsism, and against ontological realism where properties are mind-independent


Speculation4

Speculation

  • The idea of the superposition is troubled also by the Schrödinger’s cat paradox: nothing has properties unless these properties are percieved by a conscious agent

  • The Schrödinger’s cat paradox can be resolved with other interpretations such as with the many minds/worlds interpretation, where every perception makes the Universe branch based on the superposition <dead | alive>


The solipsist interpretation12

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Might sound funny but these interpretations are out there


The solipsist interpretation13

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific


The solipsist interpretation14

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

  • The importance of the measurement is over-propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation


The solipsist interpretation15

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

  • The importance of the measurement is over-propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation

  • The unmeasurable conclusions are against the original postulate of extreme empiricism


The solipsist interpretation16

The Solipsist Interpretation

  • Extreme empiricism is taken as a starting point: only that what is measured is scientific

  • The importance of the measurement is over-propagated into unmeasurable conclusions : superluminal influences and the many-worlds interpretation

  • The unmeasurable conclusions are against the original postulate of extreme empiricism

  • This is unnoticed because metaphysics is denied to exist by the extreme empiricist


Solipsism or realism

Solipsism or Realism?

  • Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.


Solipsism or realism1

Solipsism or Realism?

  • Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.

  • Economy favours the realist interpretation: it is a simpler explanation of the measurement results


Solipsism or realism2

Solipsism or Realism?

  • Which one should we choose, the realist or the solipsist intepretation? The case is unmeasurable.

  • Economy favours the realist interpretation: it is a simpler explanation of the measurement results

    • Solipsism unnecessarily and effectively muddifies the wells of discourse


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Economical realism is a good way to go. It makes the total science a tighter package than earlier. Accept the necessary part of metaphysics and let economy be the judge.


Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • Economical realism is a good way to go. It makes the total science a tighter package than earlier. Accept the necessary part of metaphysics and let economy be the judge.

  • A case where the utility of philosophy can be easily explained


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