NOTES:    The Sun
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NOTES: The Sun How big ? D(Jupiter) = 10 x D(Earth) D(Sun) = 10 x D(Jupiter) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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NOTES: The Sun How big ? D(Jupiter) = 10 x D(Earth) D(Sun) = 10 x D(Jupiter) More precisely, D(Sun) = 109 x D(Earth) . (See overlay) Or 1.3 million Earth volumes. How massive ? M(Sun) = 330,000 M(Earth) . How far ? 1 AU = 1.5x108 km = 8.3 light mins (Pluto-5.5 lt hrs)

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NOTES: The Sun How big ? D(Jupiter) = 10 x D(Earth) D(Sun) = 10 x D(Jupiter)

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Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

NOTES: The Sun

How big? D(Jupiter) = 10 x D(Earth)

D(Sun) = 10 x D(Jupiter)

More precisely, D(Sun) = 109 x D(Earth) . (See overlay)

Or 1.3 million Earth volumes.

How massive? M(Sun) = 330,000 M(Earth) .

How far? 1 AU = 1.5x108 km = 8.3 light mins (Pluto-5.5 lt hrs)

How bright? Power output at source = Luminosity,

L = 4 x 1026 watts. Enough power to cover surface with

100 watt tiny Christmas tree lights.

How bright at Earth? Solar Constant = 1,370 watts/m2.

Like 14 100 watt bulbs.

Content? See abundance overlay.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

How big? Roughly (diameters)

D(Jupiter) = 10 x D(Earth)

D(Sun) = 10 x D(Jupiter)

More precisely,

D(Sun) = 109 x D(Earth) .


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

D(Sun) = 109 x D(Earth)

Or 1.3 million Earth volumes.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

How massive? M(Sun) = 330,000 M(Earth) . Found using

Newton’s version of Kepler’s 3rd Law.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

How far?

1 AU = 1.5x108 km = 8.3 light mins (Pluto-5.5 lt hrs)

About 8,000 Pluto distances to the nearest star—Alpha Centauri


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

How bright at Earth? Solar Constant = 1,370 watts/m2.

Like 14 100 watt bulbs. However, solar panels

are less than 50% efficient.

World’s largest solar facility—produces 150 megawatts.

How many square meters could produce this?


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

Layers of the sun:

Three means of energy transfer:

Conduction (throughout), Convection, and Radiation.

Photosphere:

T= 5700 K

Chromosphere

T = 15,000 K

Corona

T = 2 million K


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

Radiation: high energy gamma rays emitted in core

are absorbed and re-emitted as multiple photons,

degrading energy. This is called the random walk.

It takes 1-10 million years for energy to reach the sun's surface.

Core: T = 15 million K


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

Source of Energy (Nuclear Fusion):

P-P Process: Protons must have enough energy to overcome

electric repulsion and fuse together.

This means 10 million degrees K (Kelvin = Centigrade + 273).

Dominates in stars less than 1.5 solar masses.

p + p --> D + positron + neutrino

p + D --> 3He + gamma ray

2 3He --> 4He + 2p


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

CNO Process: In stars above 1.5 solar masses there is recycled

carbon in the core, which works as a catalyst for fusing protons

into Helium 4. Catalyst: unchanged, but facilitates process.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

Spectrum: Continuous spectrum with hundreds of dark lines.

Peak wavelength gives surface temperature

T = 5700 K of photosphere. We can see into various depths

by looking out at toward the limb, or sun's edge.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

  • Sunspots: Maximum every 11 years.

  • Sun's magn. pole also flips every 11 years.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

They migrate toward equator.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

We know we have intensified magnetic fields in sunspots

by the amount certain spectral lines are split apart by the

Zeeman effect.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

No sunspots from 1650-1715 AD--Maunder minimum.

No one knows why, or whether it will happen again.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

Sunspots are associated with flares, prominences,

and coronal mass ejection.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

Babcock's dynamo theory utilizes

differential rotation to explain the variations in sunspots.

It’s like a rubber band being wrapped around sun as

it rotates. If will break eventually  solar minimum.


Notes the sun how big d jupiter 10 x d earth d sun 10 x d jupiter

The solar wind of electrons (and a few protons)

is increased during sunspot maximum and by solar flares.


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