The low temperature universe
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The Low Temperature Universe. Roger Blandford Stanford SLAC KIPAC. Sun 6000 o. Rigel 11000 o. Hot Young Stars. AB7 120,000 o. Orion Nebula. Carinae 20-30,000 o. Centigrade Kelvin. 12 ft. 100 o Steam 373 o 0 o Ice 273 o

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The Low Temperature Universe

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The low temperature universe

The Low Temperature Universe

Roger Blandford

Stanford

SLAC

KIPAC

LTD-13


Hot young stars

Sun 6000o

Rigel 11000o

Hot Young Stars

AB7 120,000o

Orion Nebula

  • Carinae

  • 20-30,000o

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

Centigrade Kelvin

12 ft

100o Steam 373o

0o Ice 273o

-269o Liquid Helium 4o

-273o Coldest 0o

285 ft

273 ft

Kelvin

LTD-13


Thermodynamics it s the law

Thermodynamics- It’s the law

I Energy conserved

II Disorder increases

III Unattainable, zero temperature

LTD-13


Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic Waves

300,000 km per second!

Energy ~ Frequency

Wavelength

Light, infrared radiation, radio waves, X-rays…. are all electromagnetic

Electromagnetic waves comes in particles called photons

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Colder Cold Warm Hot Hotter

Radio

IR

O

UV

X-ray

g-ray

(s)mm

Low frequency

Long wavelength

High frequency

Short wavelength

LTD-13


Gas temperature

Gas Temperature

Cold

Slow molecules

Hot

Slow molecules

LTD-13


Hot young stars1

Sun 6000o

Rigel 11000o

Hot Young Stars

AB7 120,000o

Orion Nebula

  • Carinae

  • 20-30,000o

LTD-13


Brown dwarfs planets and

Brown dwarfs, planets and …

Gliese 229B

1800K

Uranus 50K

Pluto 40K

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Colder Cold Warm Hot Hotter

Radio

IR

O

UV

X-ray

g-ray

(s)mm

Low frequency

Long wavelength

High frequency

Short wavelength

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Colder Cold Warm Hot Hotter

Radio

IR

O

UV

X-ray

g-ray

(s)mm

Low frequency

Long wavelength

High frequency

Short wavelength

LTD-13


M51 whirlpool nebula

M51 “Whirlpool Nebula”

Herschel

Hubble

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Colder Cold Warm Hot Hotter

Radio

IR

O

UV

X-ray

g-ray

(s)mm

Low frequency

Long wavelength

High frequency

Short wavelength

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

ALMA

LTD-13


Barnard 68

Barnard 68

16 K

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

293K

HELP!

I’VE BEEN ABDUCTED

BY ALIENS

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

80K

HELP!

I’VE BEEN ABDUCTED

BY ALIENS

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

4K

HELP!

I’VE BEEN ABDUCTED

BY ALIENS

LTD-13


Cryogenic dark matter search

Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

50 mK

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Colder Cold Warm Hot Hotter

Radio

IR

O

UV

X-ray

g-ray

(s)mm

Low frequency

Long wavelength

High frequency

Short wavelength

LTD-13


Microwave background

Microwave Background

QUaD

WMAP

310K

2.7K

240K

Planck

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

Neutron Stars

…are very cold!

1 solar mass

10 km

Superconductivity

Superfluidity!

LTD-13


M87 virgo cluster

M87 – Virgo Cluster

Six billion solar masses

Ten billion km

LTD-13


Hawking radiation

Hawking Radiation

Tiny Black Holes are Hot

Big Black Holes are Cold

LTD-13


M87 virgo cluster1

M87 – Virgo Cluster

Six billion solar masses

Ten billion km

One billion, billionth K

One photon per year!

LTD-13


The low temperature universe

The Universe is a Cool Place!

LTD-13


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