LEUCOCYTES. Presented by Prof. Dr Gehan Sheira Tanta University 2006-2007. LEUCOCYTES. The white blood cells may be divided into two broad groups, the phagocytes and the immunocytes. The phagocytes are the granulocytes ( neutrophils-eosinophils- basophils) together with the monocytes.
Prof. Dr Gehan Sheira
( neutrophils-eosinophils- basophils) together with the monocytes.
Many growth factors ( GF ) are involved :
- IL 1,3,5 for eosinophils
- IL 6,11, GMCSF , GCSF and monocytes CSF ( MCSF ) .
GFs stimulate proliferation , differentiation and function of the mature cells .
Infections increase production of GFs from T- lymphocytes and stromal cells stimulated by IL 1, TNF and endotoxin .
IV or SC administration of GFs(GMCSF and GCSF ) increases neutrophils , eosinophils and monocytes :
-Lymphocytes orginate from stem cell in the bone marrow : from bone marrow to the tissues.
( CD 4 ) and suppressor or cytotoxic cells
( CD 8 ) .
4- Non Hodgkin lymphoma
1-Severe BM failure with immune suppressive therapy
2-Immune deficiency syndromes primary or secondary ( AIDS ) .
-Functions of monocytes : from bone marrow to the tissues.
1 -Chronic infections ( TB , typhoid and brucellosis ).
2 -Treatment with MCSF and GMCSF.
3 -Hodgkin disease.
4 -Myelodysplasia and CMML .
- Causes :
1-allergic and hypersensitivity diseases.
3-certain skin diseases ( psoriasis……)
4-treatment with GMCSF
5-Hodgkin s disease.
eosinophilic number is more than 1.5 x 10/L for more than 6 months with tissue damage for example heart valves , lung and skin.
1- Bacterial infection ( pyogenic ).
2- Inflammation and tissue necrosis .
3- Neoplasms .
4- Acute haemorrhage and haemolysis .
5- Metabolic disorders ( uremia – gout
-acidosis ) .
6-Treatment with GFs .
7- Myeloproliferative disorders .
8- Corticosteroid therapy as it inhibits
- With neutrophil leucocytosis : disintegrate liberating tissue damage substances causing local inflammation .
-Antibiotics : sulphonamides –chloramphenicol co-trimoxasole .
-NSAIDs : phenylbutazone ….
-Anticonvulsants : phenytoin ….
-Antithyroids : carbimazol ….
-Antidiabetics : chlorpromide ….
-Antihypertensive : captopril ….
- Antiarrhythmic : procainamide ….
- Antimalarial : chloroquine …
- Miscellaneous : gold, penicillamine ….
- Treatment of the cause ,drug discontinuation.
- Combination of broad spectrum antibiotics .
- Myeloid growth factors may be of help
( GCSF – GMCSF ) .
The Igs are all made up of the same basic lymphoma, myeloma and carcinoma .structure , consisting of two heavy chains which are called gamma in Ig G , alpha in Ig A , mu in Ig M , delta in Ig D and epsilon in Ig E , and two light chains ( Kappa or Lambda ) which are common to all five Igs . They can be broken into a constant Fc fragment and two highly variable Fab fragments .
( monoclonal ).
-Detection of paraprotein ( monmclonal Igs or light chains in serum or urine by serum protein or immune electropheresis.
( skull , spine , ribs and proximal long bones ).