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Household Surveys ACS – CPS - AHS. INFO 7470 / ECON 8500 Warren A. Brown University of Georgia February 22, 2011. CES Discussion Papers. Purpose Target Population Sampling Frame Data Collection Non-Response Missing Data. Weighting Sampling Error PUF / IUF Data Access to Reports

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Household surveys acs cps ahs

Household SurveysACS – CPS - AHS

INFO 7470 / ECON 8500

Warren A. Brown

University of Georgia

February 22, 2011



Outline

Purpose

Target Population

Sampling Frame

Data Collection

Non-Response

Missing Data

Weighting

Sampling Error

PUF / IUF Data

Access to Reports

Research Questions

Resources

Outline


American community survey

American Community Survey

Sponsor: Census Bureau

Collector: Census Bureau

Purpose: “The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey that provides data every year -- giving communities the current information they need to plan investments and services. Information from the survey generates data that help determine how more than $400 billion in federal and state funds are distributed each year.”


Acs purpose
ACS: Purpose

  • Key Component for Re-Engineered Census

  • Replacing the Decennial Census “Long-Form”

  • Continuous measurement rather than snapshot

  • Meet federal legislative and program needs

  • Other stakeholders in state and local government and private sectors

  • Provide annual data on demographic, social, economic and housing characteristics.

  • Improve the Federal Statistical System


Advantages of the acs
Advantages of the ACS

  • Timeliness

  • Comparability

  • Reliability

  • Numerous data products


Acs target population
ACS: Target Population

  • Current residence not “Usual Residence”

    • “two-month rule”

  • Household population in 2005

  • Total (HH + GQ) in 2006 and ….

  • GQ residency is “de facto”


Acs sampling frame
ACS: Sampling Frame

  • Master Address File (MAF)

    • Official inventory of known living quarters

    • Linked to TIGER

  • Housing Units

    • Based on Census 2000 MAF and updates from the USPS’ Delivery Sequence File

  • Group Quarters

    • … and updates from the administrative records and the FSCPE

    • Excluded from ACS are domestic violence shelters, soup kitchens, commercial maritime vessels,…


Acs design of the sample
ACS: Design of the Sample

  • Annual Sample Size of 3 million addresses

  • Series of Monthly Samples of 250,000 addresses

  • HU sample in each of the 3,141 Counties

  • Areas with smaller populations sampled at higher rates than those with larger populations

  • HU Address sampling rate set by Block based on entity (municipality, school district, tract)

  • Final sampling rate varies between 1.6% and 10%

  • No HU address can be sampled more than once in 5 years


Acs questionnaire
ACS: Questionnaire

  • Content designed to meet the needs of federal government agencies

  • 21 housing and 48 population questions

  • Household Respondent provides responses for all other residents of the household

  • Householder or Reference Person is “Person 1”


Acs data collection
ACS: Data Collection

  • HU addresses by three modes

    • Mailout of paper questionnaire in 1st month

    • Telephone (CATI) non-response follow-up in 2nd month

    • Personal visit (CAPI) non-response follow-up in 3rd month to a sub-sample

  • GQ

    • Personal visit within 6 weeks of sample selection



Non response follow up
Non-Response Follow Up

  • 1st Month – Mailed Questionnaire

  • 2nd Month – Attempt at Telephone Interview

  • 3rd Month – Sub-Sample of Non-Respondents

    • 67% unmailable addresses

    • 50% low response tracts

    • 33% high response tracts


Acs response rates
ACS: Response Rates

  • Participation is mandatory

  • Sample addresses eligible for interviewing:

    • 51% Mail response

    • 9% CATI non-response follow-up

    • 38% CAPI non-response follow-up

    • 2% Non-interview


Acs missing data
ACS: Missing Data

Item non-response or failed edit check

  • FEFU – failed-edit follow-up

    • More than 5 household members

    • Critical questions not answered

    • 33% of mail return questionnaires in 2005

  • Imputation

    • Assignment used other data on respondent

    • Allocation – hot deck procedure

    • Flags variables


Acs weighting
ACS: Weighting

  • Person and Housing Unit weights

  • Three stages

    • Probability of selection (initial sampling rate)

    • Adjust for non-response

    • Control to Population Estimates

  • Sum the weights

    • Person weights for person characteristics

    • HU weights for family, household or housing unit characteristics

  • Householders = Households ???


Acs weighty issues
ACS: Weighty Issues

ACS 2005 for United States

  • 288,378,137 Persons in Households

  • 111,090,617 Households

  • 114,763,475 Householders

  • Average Household Size

    • 2.60 based on Households

    • 2.51 based on Householders


Acs sampling error
ACS: Sampling Error

  • Publishing margins of error in tables

  • More sample less error

  • 1, 3, and 5 year estimates and associated sampling error

  • Sampling error for small area data is proving to be a problem


Complex sample surveys and weights
Complex Sample Surveys and Weights

  • Weight - numeric variable expressing the number of housing units or people that an individual microdata record represents

  • Sum of the housing unit and person weights for a geographic area is equal to the estimate of the total number of housing units and people in that area

  • Values for weights vary

    • Different Probability of Selection

    • Differential Response Rate

    • Control to Population Estimates


Alternatives for estimating standard error
Alternatives for Estimating Standard Error

  • Design Factor

  • Replicate Weights

  • Ignore


Alternatives for estimating standard error1
Alternatives for Estimating Standard Error

  • Design Factor

    • Design factors are factors to multiply times the standard error of a simple random sample.

    • Easier to use than the replicate weights

  • Replicate Weights

    • Generally, more accurate

    • Somewhat more work than design factors



Design factors
Design Factors

* West Virginia is 1.0 for Age and 1.5 for Person Income


Estimate of standard error using replicate weights
Estimate of Standard Error Using Replicate Weights

where:

  • X is the estimate formed from the PUMS weight

  • Xr is the estimate formed from the rth replicate weight.


Puf iuf
PUF / IUF

  • 1% Sample

  • PUMA

  • Top Coding

  • Collapsed Categories

  • Perturbation

  • No Administrative

  • 2.5% Sample

  • Block/Tract/Place

  • Full Distribution

  • Full Distribution

  • Actual Ages

  • Details of Collection



Resources
Resources

  • Census Bureau

  • IPUMS

  • Michigan Population Studies Center

  • National Academy Sciences-CNSTAT


Acs on www census gov
ACS on www.census.gov


http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/acs/dataanalysis/UsingReplicateWeights.htmlhttp://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/acs/dataanalysis/UsingReplicateWeights.html


Nas cnstat acs reports
NAS-CNSTAT ACS Reportshttp://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/acs/dataanalysis/UsingReplicateWeights.html

***********

2001, CNSTAT’s 2007, Census 2008,

core sponsors Bureau NSF/SRS


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