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DNA Extraction Makeups Tuesday – after school 2:20 sharp! . The Gold Standard of Forensic E vidence: DNA. By Sanford Herzon DNA Resource Center Montgomery County Public Schools Rockville, Maryland. Escaping the cell How it started The technology The chain reaction The law

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the gold standard of forensic e vidence dna

The Gold Standard of Forensic Evidence: DNA

By Sanford Herzon

DNA Resource Center

Montgomery County Public Schools

Rockville, Maryland

slide3

Escaping the cell

  • How it started
  • The technology
  • The chain reaction
  • The law
  • The ethical issues
escaping the cell
Escaping the cell
  • The Gold Standard
  • DNA Terminology
  • DNA Structure
  • DNA Extraction
slide12

“DNA has become the gold standard in the identification process”

- Mike Coble when asked how DNA compares to other forensic evidence such as serology and fingerprints.

terminology
Terminology
  • A chromosome is made of a DNA molecule. Humans have 46 chromosome in all body cells.
  • 46 chromosomes contains 3 billion codes (nitrogenous bases) of genetic information
  • A sequence refers a string of bases such as: ACTGCTC
  • A gene is a subunit of a chromosome. A gene codes for a specific trait like hair color or height.
terminology1
Terminology
  • Nuclear DNA – this refers to the 46 linear chromosomes found in the nucleus. Each parent contributes 23 chromosome to the offspring.
  • Mitochondrial DNA – one circular chromosome containing 37 genes. 13 of these genes are used in aerobic respiration to produce ATP (energy).
structure
Structure
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Molecule is referred to as “double helix”
  • Organic polymer made of repeating units called Nucleotides
  • 4. Nucleotides have 3 parts
  • 1. sugar – deoxyribose
  • 2. phosphate
  • 3. Nitrogenous bases
  • Adenine pairs with Thymine
  • Cytosine pairs with Guanine
dna extraction
DNA Extraction
  • Recipe for extracting DNA was discovered by Friedrich Meischer in 1869.
  • Today, most recipes involve four steps:
    • Centrifuge
    • Addition of lysis buffer
    • Addition of Salt solution
    • Addition of ethanol
slide20

Pellet the nuclei

Ca++

Added Prep Buffer

Added EDTA

Mg++

Disorients phospholipids to

breakdown nuclear membrane freeing the DNA

Add SDS

slide21

Add NaCl

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

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