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DNA Extraction Makeups Tuesday – after school 2:20 sharp! . The Gold Standard of Forensic E vidence: DNA. By Sanford Herzon DNA Resource Center Montgomery County Public Schools Rockville, Maryland. Escaping the cell How it started The technology The chain reaction The law

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Dna extraction makeups tuesday after school 2 20 sharp

DNA Extraction MakeupsTuesday – after school 2:20 sharp!


The gold standard of forensic e vidence dna

The Gold Standard of Forensic Evidence: DNA

By Sanford Herzon

DNA Resource Center

Montgomery County Public Schools

Rockville, Maryland


  • Escaping the cell

  • How it started

  • The technology

  • The chain reaction

  • The law

  • The ethical issues


Escaping the cell
Escaping the cell

  • The Gold Standard

  • DNA Terminology

  • DNA Structure

  • DNA Extraction





“DNA has become the gold standard in the identification process”

- Mike Coble when asked how DNA compares to other forensic evidence such as serology and fingerprints.


Terminology
Terminology process”

  • A chromosome is made of a DNA molecule. Humans have 46 chromosome in all body cells.

  • 46 chromosomes contains 3 billion codes (nitrogenous bases) of genetic information

  • A sequence refers a string of bases such as: ACTGCTC

  • A gene is a subunit of a chromosome. A gene codes for a specific trait like hair color or height.


Terminology1
Terminology process”

  • Nuclear DNA – this refers to the 46 linear chromosomes found in the nucleus. Each parent contributes 23 chromosome to the offspring.

  • Mitochondrial DNA – one circular chromosome containing 37 genes. 13 of these genes are used in aerobic respiration to produce ATP (energy).


Structure
Structure process”

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid

  • Molecule is referred to as “double helix”

  • Organic polymer made of repeating units called Nucleotides

  • 4. Nucleotides have 3 parts

  • 1. sugar – deoxyribose

  • 2. phosphate

  • 3. Nitrogenous bases

  • Adenine pairs with Thymine

  • Cytosine pairs with Guanine


The nucleotide
The Nucleotide process”


Dna extraction
DNA Extraction process”

  • Recipe for extracting DNA was discovered by Friedrich Meischer in 1869.

  • Today, most recipes involve four steps:

    • Centrifuge

    • Addition of lysis buffer

    • Addition of Salt solution

    • Addition of ethanol



Pellet the nuclei process”

Ca++

Added Prep Buffer

Added EDTA

Mg++

Disorients phospholipids to

breakdown nuclear membrane freeing the DNA

Add SDS


Add process”NaCl

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+


Add process”EtOH


Virtual extraction quiz due by thursday dec 19
Virtual Extraction Quiz process”– Due by Thursday, Dec. 19


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