Who uses APA at CQUniversity?. APA is used by: Education Psychology Exercise and Sport Sciences Creative and Performing Arts. 6th edition of the APA manual. APA is based on the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).CQUniversity's referencing we
1. Communications Learning Centre APA referencing: An introduction
2. Who uses APA at CQUniversity?
APA is used by:
Exercise and Sport Sciences
Creative and Performing Arts
3. 6th edition of the APA manual APA is based on the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
CQUniversity’s referencing website contains an abridged guide to the 6th edition of the APA guide.
There is a chapter on referencing on the Library site
PLEASE NOTE: The abridged guide may not be suitable for psychology students who are expected to refer to the full APA manual.
4. Support for the use of APA style APA offers an excellent online resource: http://www.apastyle.org/
A tutorial introducing users to the elements of APA referencing
Frequently Asked Questions
A blog addressing specific questions and issues
5. APA referencing basics Reference in two ways: in-text and in the reference list
Every source referred to in the text of the essay should be in the reference list
Sources not referred to in the text of the assignment should not be in the reference list (cf. bibliography)
6. In-text APA referencing In-text references should be given whenever the writer is drawing on the work of others. This includes:
the exact words of others
paraphrases and summaries of the words of others
statistics, examples and case studies
theories, arguments and viewpoints
figures and tables.
In-text references should include:
the author’s surname and the year of publication
the page number if 1) you are quoting the author’s exact words or 2) if including the page number would help your reader find the source of the information.
7. In-text APA referencing In-text referencing can be author prominent or information prominent.
In author-prominent referencing, the author’s name is included as part of your sentence, and the year of publication is given in brackets. For example: Smith (2009) has demonstrated conclusively that …
In information-prominent referencing, the author’s name is not included as part of your sentence, and is instead given in brackets with the year of publication. For example: This has been demonstrated conclusively (Smith, 2009).
8. In-text APA referencing Multiple authors:
If the work has two authors, give both names every time you use the reference. For example: (Smith & Jones, 2009)
If the work has three, four or five authors, give all authors’ names the first time the reference occurs, then give only the first author’s name followed by et al. and the year in later citations. For example: (Smith et al., 2009, p. 16)
If the work has six or more authors, give only the first author’s name followed by et al. and the year in both the first and later citations.
9. Example of in-text APA referencing Writing academic assignments takes time and patience. According to Bloggs (1998, p. 36), a typical undergraduate assignment is the end result of hours of research and playing around with other’s ideas. In order to make sure you do not simply rewrite someone else’s ideas as your own, you need to “engage with the information you read and apply it to your specific topic” (Jones, 2003, p. 34). Unless you can show your lecturer that you have understood how the research applies to your area, you will not have written a good assignment (Smith, 1999). Writing academic assignments is time consuming and rigorous.
10. In-text APA referencing When citing the same work multiple times within a single paragraph:
If the name of the author is part of your sentence (i.e., author-prominent referencing), you only need to provide the year the first time you mention the work. For example:
Chaffee (2007) argued that there were a number of different approaches to this problem. The research Chaffee conducted demonstrated that …
If the name of the author is not part of your sentence (i.e. information-prominent referencing), you need to provide the year every time you mention the work. For example:
There were a number of different approaches to the problem (Chafee, 2007). Chafee (2007) found that …
11. The reference list Included at the end of the essay, report or paper. (If there are appendices, they usually go after the reference list.)
Uses the heading References, centred, in normal text.
Always begins on a new page.
Contains full bibliographic details of all sources referred to in alphabetical order.
Presented in double line spacing, with a hanging indent and no blank line between references.
12. Sample APA references Bloggs, J. (1998). Writing brilliant assignments. Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Jones, A. (2003). Critical reading. The Writing Centre Journal, 10(3), 72-79.
Smith, J. (1999). Maintaining academic integrity. Retrieved from http://www.harvard.edu/integrity.html
13. Referencing books (5th & 6th eds) Author [surname, initials]. (date of publication). Title [in italics] edition [if other than first] (x ed.). City of publication, state/country of publication: Publisher.
Brown, H.D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th ed.). New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
14. Books: Notes Give city and state of publication for US cities, city and country of publication for non-US cities.
Do not include the words Pty Ltd, Co. or Publishers (but do include Books and Press) in the name of the publisher.
When the author is also the publisher, use the word Author to indicate the publisher.
If two or more locations are listed, use the first location listed.
15. Electronic books (6th ed.) No need to include publisher and place of publication, as you would for hard-copy books.
Include information on the electronic edition in square brackets after the title. For example: [DX Reader version] or [Adobe Digital Editions version].
If it is an electronic-only book, no edition information is needed.
16. Electronic books (6th ed.) If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) number, include this at the end of the reference. No URL is needed.
If there is no DOI, give the URL from which the e-book was downloaded. No retrieved date is needed.
17. Electronic books: Examples Hansen, R.S. (2008). The complete idiot’s guide to study skills [Kindle version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
Freud, S. (2005). Dream psychology: Psychoanalysis for beginners (M.D. Eder, Trans.). Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15489/15489-h/15489-h.htm (Original work published 1920)
18. Referencing periodicals (5th & 6th eds) Articles in journals: print
Author (surname, initials). [date of publication]. Title of article (minimal capitalisation, no quotation marks). Title of Journal (maximal capitalisation, in italics), volume number (in italics), issue number (if required, in brackets, with no comma between volume and issue no.), page numbers.
Neilson, R. (1999). A discussion on approaches to phonological awareness. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 22, 88-102.
19. Periodicals: Notes For magazines, newsletters and newspapers, give the year followed by the exact date of publication (month, or month and day), separated by a comma and in brackets. For example: Smith, J. (2009, February 7).
Only include the issue number if the journal is paginated separately by issue (i.e., if each issue begins at page 1). For example: Journal of Anthropology, 54(2)
If there are up to seven authors, give all authors’ names in the reference list. If there are eight or more authors, give the first six authors’ names, followed by an ellipsis (…) and the final author’s name.
20. Referencing periodicals (6th ed.) Articles in journals: electronic
If there is a digital object identifier (DOI), include it at the end of the reference. No retrieval date or URL is needed.
If there is no DOI, give the URL of the journal home page. (You may need to search for this.)
For online magazine or newspaper articles, give the URL of the publication home page (not the exact URL) if the article is available by search.
If the article is not available by search or is otherwise hard to find, give the exact URL.
No retrieval date is needed.
21. Periodicals: Examples (6th ed.) Herbst-Damm, K.L., & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-618.104.22.168
Huang, D., & Cho, J. (2009). Academic enrichment in high- functioning homework after-school programs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23, 382-393. Retrieved from http://www.acei.org/jrcehp.htm
22. Referencing websites (6th ed.) Author (surname, initials, unless corporate author). (year of publication). Title of Web page [descriptive information if applicable in square brackets]. Retrieved from [URL].
Include retrieved date only if content is likely to change (e.g., a Wiki).
Queensland Department of Education and Training. (2004). International students. Retrieved from http://education.qld.gov.au/international/
23. Web sites (6th ed.) If you are referring to a website as a whole but not an individual document on the website, it is acceptable simply to give the URL (website address) in the text.
Example: The Journal of Academic Language and Learning (http://journal.aall.org.au) is one example of the new generation of online education journals.
24. Some more examples (6th ed.) Entry in an online reference work, no author, no date:
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic
Lucas, G. (Producer), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1981). Raiders of the lost ark [Motion picture]. Hollywood, CA: Paramount Pictures & Lucasfilm.
25. More examples Message posted to a Moodle discussion group:
Brown, T. (2009, September 6). Re: Classroom management [Electronic discussion group message]. Retrieved from CQUniversity e-Courses EDED11406 Teaching Reading, http://e-courses.cqu.edu.au/
Material made available through CRO: Give full publication details, then add: Retrieved
from CQUniversity Course Resources Online (Course code and title): URL
Material made available through Moodle: Give full publication details, then add: Retrieved from CQUniversity e-Courses, Course Code and Name: http://e-courses.cqu.edu.au
26. Questions? CQU students: CLC can help with your referencing questions.
Call or email: (07) 4930 9059 firstname.lastname@example.org