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The Architecture of Distributed Systems. Enterprise wide computing, networking and the desktop revolution. IT Architecture. Hardware and software Tools to access, package, deliver, & communicate information Standards, models, & control framework Configuration integrating components

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The architecture of distributed systems

The Architecture of Distributed Systems

Enterprise wide computing, networking and the desktop revolution


It architecture
IT Architecture

  • Hardware and software

  • Tools to access, package, deliver, & communicate information

  • Standards, models, & control framework

  • Configuration integrating components

    • What is the difference between an IT Architecture and an IT Infrastructure?


It architecture and infrastructure
IT Architecture and Infrastructure

  • Architecture is overall blue print of how systems “fit” together

    • IS community has lost credibility b/c of failure in this area.

  • Infrastructure is a particular implementation of IT architecture with basic capabilities shared across business units.

  • ??Why is an overall IT architecture important?


Views of it infrastructure
Views of IT Infrastructure

  • Utility

    • necessary and unavoidable service, often viewed as administrative expense.

    • Firms with this view tend to offer fewest infrastructure services

    • focus on lowering costs and not reengineering processes.


Views of it infrastructure1
Views of IT Infrastructure

  • Dependent

    • Tied to specific business programs in plan (ex. Improve service quality)

    • infrastructure planning included in current business plan

    • measured in short-term benefits

    • minimum requirement for implementing BPR


Views of it infrastructure2
Views of IT Infrastructure

  • Enabling

    • continuous re-alignment of IT infrastructure with firm strategy.

    • Long term strategy

    • infrastructure provides basis for flexibility, rapid adaptation of future strategies

    • costs viewed as business investments

    • networks used extensively in business processes

    • increased up front costs


Focus on it infrastructure
Focus on IT Infrastructure

  • Corp. IS departments moving from hw/sw to application/infrastructure focus

    • IS depts. in business of maintaining IT infrastructure

    • s/w development reduced to modifying packages for/by end users

    • CIOs starting to prefer CTO title

    • Why is IS dept. focus on infrastr. a recipe for obsolescence or extinction of IS depts.?


It architecture1
IT Architecture

  • Applications

    • IT-enabled process redesign

    • Productivity applications

    • Competitive advantage

  • Structure & controls

    • Standards, policies and procedures

    • Information models

    • System development methodologies


It architecture2
IT Architecture

  • User interface

    • GUI

    • IO devices

  • Tools & packages

    • Presentation & reporting

    • Analysis & modeling

    • Groupware

    • Personal productivity

    • DSS


It architecture3
IT Architecture

  • Information Management

    • Hardware

    • OS

    • DBMS

    • Document management systems

    • Information retrieval

  • Communication management

    • Networks

    • Gateways

    • Email & file transfer


It architecture evolution
IT Architecture Evolution

  • Mainframes with “dumb” terminals

    • download/upload data

    • run mainframe programs (usu. batch)

    • little local processing

  • Micros moved it to desktop

  • Network computing model

    • centralized model with network replacing m/f


The computer system concept

Central Processing Unit

Control

Unit

ALU

Input

Devices

Output

Devices

Primary Storage

Unit

Secondary

Storage

Devices

The Computer System Concept


Changes in computer architecture
Changes in Computer Architecture

1930

1950

1957

1965

1975

firstgeneration

secondgeneration

thirdgeneration

fourthgeneration

prototype

vacuumtube

transistor

integratedcircut

mechanicalrelay

microprocessor



A microprocessor
A Microprocessor

control unit

arithmeticlogic unit

128K temporary memory

systemclock

input/outputcircuitry



Computer classifications
Computer Classifications

Mainframes

Midrange

Computers

Microcomputers


Networked computer systems

Servers

Client

Systems

Networked Computer Systems

Host Systems/

Superservers


How distributed are your systems
How distributed are your systems?

  • Where is the processing of data done?

    • Distributed processing

  • How are the processors and other devices interconnected?

    • Processor connectivity

  • Where is the information stored?

    • Distributed databases

  • What rules or standards are used?

    • Protocols, transmission standards, etc.


Distributed system frameworks
Distributed System Frameworks

  • Organizational View

    • Corporate HQ

    • Regional HQ

    • Plant or Site

    • Department

    • Work Group

    • Individual


Types of distributed systems
Types of Distributed Systems

  • Host-based hierarchical systems



Types of distributed systems1
Types of Distributed Systems

  • Host-based hierarchical systems

  • Decentralized Stand-Alone Systems



Types of distributed systems2
Types of Distributed Systems

  • Host-based hierarchical systems

  • Decentralized Stand-Alone Systems

  • Peer-Peer LAN-Based Systems



Types of distributed systems3
Types of Distributed Systems

  • Host-based hierarchical systems

  • Decentralized Stand-Alone Systems

  • Peer-Peer LAN-Based Systems

  • Hybrid Enterprise-Wide Systems


Types of distributed systems4
Types of Distributed Systems

  • Host-based hierarchical systems

  • Decentralized Stand-Alone Systems

  • Peer-Peer LAN-Based Systems

  • Hybrid Enterprise-Wide Systems

  • Client/Server Systems


Some common client server definitions
Some Common Client/Server Definitions

  • “A network that uses smart nodes instead of dumb terminals”

  • “Ability to distribute the workload”

  • “Client manages the human interface; server manages the files”


Client server basic architecture
Client/Server Basic Architecture

Request Sent

Request Answered

Client

Server


Client server basic architecture1
Client/Server Basic Architecture

Server

Client

Server Becomes

Client

Mainframe


Types of servers
Types of Servers

  • Database Servers

  • Resource Servers

  • Application Servers

  • Computation Servers



Benefits of client server computing
Benefits of Client/Server Computing

  • Easy Database Access

  • Downsizing Computer Resources

  • Shared Hardware & Software Resources

  • Increased Management Control

    • Remove “Islands of Automation”

  • Scalable Architecture


Benefits of client server computing1
Benefits of Client/Server Computing

  • Faster Application Development

  • Reduced Application Development Backlog

  • Increased Application Performance


Barriers to client server computing
Barriers to Client/Server Computing

  • Implementation Costs

    • Equipment

    • Systems Integration

    • Retraining IS Personnel

  • MIS Culture

  • Immature Technology

  • Lack of Management Tools


Barriers to client server computing1
Barriers to Client/Server Computing

  • Threat to Stable Operations

  • Data Security

  • Complexity

  • Investment Payback


Types of distributed systems5
Types of Distributed Systems

  • Host-based hierarchical systems

  • Decentralized Stand-Alone Systems

  • Peer-Peer LAN-Based Systems

  • Hybrid Enterprise-Wide Systems

  • Client/Server Systems

  • Network-Centric Systems

    • NC machines (see table 6-3 for summary costs)



Enterprise it architecture
Enterprise IT Architecture

  • Enterprise architecture framework

    • Account for different roles in complex projects

      • planner, owner, designer, builder, sub, user

    • Account for components of complex systems

      • data models, functional models, network models, people, time frames, underlying goals/motivations

      • usually requires huge investment and corporate wide initiative


Assimilating new it
Assimilating New IT

  • Phased Assimilation Model

    • Technology Identification

    • Learning and Adaptation

    • Rationalization/Management Control

    • Maturity/Technology Transfer


Types of it investments
Types of IT Investments

  • strategic system investments

  • Informational system investments

    • EIS, DSS, management control, etc.

  • Transactional system investments

    • support repetitive, operational processes

  • Infrastructure investments

    • provide the base foundation of IT capabilities



Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Distributed systems have dominated IT development of 1990’s architectures

  • C/S type may be moving to hybrid NC type

  • No one predicted the rise of the Internet

    • Internet2?

  • Complexity and speed of distributed systems will increase


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