Globalization and the race to the bottom
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 21

Globalization and the Race to the Bottom PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 49 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Globalization and the Race to the Bottom. Economic Competition (a.k.a. Globalization) Aging populations Increasing frustration/distrust of public authority Fiscal Crises. In Fact we see Variation - Not Convergence. Is Globalization like Global Warming?. Variation: Not Convergence.

Download Presentation

Globalization and the Race to the Bottom

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Globalization and the race to the bottom

Globalization and the Race to the Bottom

  • Economic Competition (a.k.a. Globalization)

  • Aging populations

  • Increasing frustration/distrust of public authority

  • Fiscal Crises


In fact we see variation not convergence

In Fact we see Variation - Not Convergence


Variation not convergence

Is Globalizationlike Global Warming?

Variation: Not Convergence


The scientific method derived from the hard sciences

The Scientific Method - Derived from the Hard Sciences

[Social scientists] envision a world composed of linear relationships among variables, parity in the size of cause and effect, recurrent patterns over time, and the fundamental insignificance of chance happenings.

Alan Zuckerman (1997)


Evolutionary science

Evolutionary Science?

  • Evolutionary science has required an investigation of “additional principles that apply only to living organisms… This required a restructuring of the conceptual world of science that was far more fundamental than anyone had imagined at the time.” Ernst Mayr, 2004


If politics were mechanics

If politics were mechanics:

We could:

Assume variable independence

Omit or control for:

emergence

contingency

Human Agency

Accurately predict change.


Globalization and the race to the bottom

My argument:Political Systems areComplex Adaptive Systems:They Evolve and Adapt in a dynamic environment (which they, in part, create themselves)

This model explicitly brings in:

Historical context (the dynamic ecology)

Contingency

Emergence

Symbiosis and Co-Evolution

Agency (source of Variation)


How political systems evolve

How Political Systems Evolve

  • Institutions are the ‘rules’ structuring political life

    • Institutions, like genes, are nothing more than behavioral instructions (rules).

  • Human agency and creativity are the sources of variation in institutional evolution.

    • Humans rationally calculate as much as they can, but are biased thinkers.

  • History Matters:

    • Institutions structure strategic choices AND ultimately shape preferences because institutional choices at time A become part of the ecological context at time B.


Two evolutionary narratives if time allows

Two Evolutionary Narratives (if time allows)

  • The USA - The Land of Milk and Honey, racing toward the bottom.

  • Sweden - The Bumble-bee that should not fly


The united states contingent conditions

The United States: Contingent Conditions

  • Massive natural resources and huge land mass to exploit.

  • Destination for world’s greatest migration

  • Fear of the democracy.

  • Institutional fragmentation

  • Checks and balances, federalism, etc.

  • Slavery


America adaptation and institutional choices

America Adaptation and Institutional Choices

  • Early Century - FDR and the push for a public sphere. Why did it fail?

  • Both Political Institutions and Cognitive Frames are Biased against Government

    (New Deal, Great Society, War on Poverty)

  • Second best choices: Targeted social welfare benefits (esp. via tax incentives)

  • Increasing Distrust of Government

  • Growing inequality


Welcome to the tea party

Welcome to the Tea Party


Sweden contingent conditions

Sweden: Contingent Conditions

  • Small homogeneous population

  • Significant natural resources

  • Northern edge of expanding Europe

  • Able to stay neutral in TWO wars - arms supplier and manufacturing advantage

  • Late/concentrated industrial development

  • Huge conflict between economic classes


Sweden adaptation and institutional choice

Sweden:Adaptation and Institutional Choice

  • Highly concentrated economy (unions and employers)

  • Electoral Rules bias towards compromise

  • The “Historic Compromise” - Saltsjöbad

  • Women instead of immigrants into labor market


Universalism a simple model

Universalism: A simple Model


Increasing support for the universal welfare state sweden

Increasing Support for the Universal Welfare State Sweden

Opinion Balance


Sweden a case of increasing returns

Sweden: A case of Increasing Returns?


Sweden s success is neither obvious nor inevitable

Sweden’s success is neither obvious, nor inevitable.

  • Competitive, open economy and the “Universal Social Welfare State”

  • High trust society


Political evolution and institutional choice

Political Evolution and Institutional Choice

Institutions, like genes, are rules that structure behavior by telling actors how to behave in particular contexts.

History “evolves” precisely because humans have the capacity to create, select and copy institutions.

When building institutions, we build part of the ecological contexts in which future generations make new choices.

Human’s thus make their own ‘evolutionary history’ but they cannot make it exactly according to their wishes.


  • Login