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Session Objectives. Analyse the components of a good learning design Model learning design examples Produce an effective and efficient learning design for selected SP graduate attributes Design integrated activities for selected graduate attributes

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Session Objectives

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Session objectives l.jpg

Session Objectives

  • Analyse the components of a good learning design

  • Model learning design examples

  • Produce an effective and efficient learning design for selected SP graduate attributes

  • Design integrated activities for selected graduate attributes

  • Identify the knowledge and skill components of teaching ‘holistically’

  • Identify assessment methods for selected graduate attributes


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Implementing Holistic Education:What Next...

...now that You have mapped the attributes in

Your Course and Modules


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Context: SP Graduate Attributes

Competence

Personal & Social Effectiveness

Communication & Teamwork

SP Graduate attributes

Global Mindset

CIE

Ethics & Responsibility


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Summary

SP Graduate Attributes

(Competency areas

with customized

SLO’s)

Evaluation

Infuse Graduate

Attributes

into Course &

Module structure

Produce Learning

Designs for

developing

competence

Produce

Assessment

Items for assessing

competence

EDU

Support


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Curriculum Alignment

Learning

Outcomes

Graduate

Attributes

Assessment

System

Learning

Designs

Inbasic terms this means that the Graduate Attribute knowledge/skill components

incorporated in the Learning Outcomes must be effectively taught through the

Learning Designs used and accurately measured in the Assessment System.


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Learning Design

A Learning Design is a planned experience (e.g., a Strategy involving a number of instructional methods, activities and resources) that facilitates desired learning outcomes for a group of students.

A Learning Activity is any task (e.g., experiment, case, project, etc)

that students are given to do, which aims to build key

understanding/competence relating to specific learning outcomes.


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The Essential Questions

  • How to produce a Learning Design that can effectively and efficiently facilitate the desired learning?

  • How to actually facilitate the learning experience for students in practice?


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Planning the Learning Design

  • What Learning Outcomes (objectives) are to be met

    • Specific subject content (facts, concepts, principles, procedures)

    • Other graduate attributes (e.g., teamwork/communication, types of thinking, ethical reasoning, etc)

  • What Instructional Methods can be employed

    • (e.g., explanation, demonstration, Q & A, group work, simulation, etc)

  • What Activities can support learning/assessment

    • (e.g., performance task, case, project, etc)

  • What additional Resources can support learning

    • (e.g., texts, handouts, web links, etc)

  • How can an effective and efficient strategy be designed for this group of learners?

    Note: this process is Iterative , not Linear


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Integrating Competences


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Competences are context-dependent and should be learned and assessed in the technical context.

Why Integrate Competences?

Communication In Engineering Means Being Able To

► Use The Technical Concepts Comfortably, ► Discuss A Problem At Different Levels, ► Determine What Is Relevant To The Situation,► Argue For Or Against Conceptual Ideas And Solutions,► Develop Ideas Through Discussion And Collaborative Sketching, ► Explain The Technical Matters For Different Audiences, ► Show Confidence In Expressing Yourself Within The Field...


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Teamwork in Engineering means?

  • Being able to identify and utilize strengths of different team members

  • Setting goals, agendas, ground-rules and meeting deadlines

  • Dealing quickly and effectively with disagreements/conflict


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Creativity, Innovation & Enterprise

Apply critical and creative thinking skills in problem solving

  • Use a range of critical thinking skills (e.g., analysis, comparison and contrast, inference and interpretation, and evaluation)

  • Use the creative thinking process (e.g., generating possibilities, incubation, illumination)

  • Identify barriers to effective thinking (e.g., traits, dispositions, working memory, perception, lack of information)

  • Identify contradictory perspectives and underlying assumptions

  • Use metacognition in monitoring the quality of personal thinking


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What is the relationship between Knowledge & Thinking?

U


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A Model of Thinking

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

Meta-cognition

Analysis

Evaluation

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


Generating possibilities l.jpg

Generating Possibilities

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

What do we do when we

generate possibilities?

  • Generate many possibilities

  • Generate different types of possibilities

  • Generate novel possibilities

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

Analysis

Evaluation

Meta-cognition

All creative products involve the

combining of old ideas or elements

in new ways

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


Comparison and contrast l.jpg

Comparison and Contrast

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

What do we do when we compare and contrast?

  • Identify what is similar between things - objects/options/ideas, etc

  • Identify what is different between things

  • Identify and consider what is important about both the similarities and differences

  • Identify a range of situations when the different features are applicable

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

Analysis

Evaluation

Meta-cognition

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


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Analysis

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

What do we do

when we analyse?

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

  • Identify relationship of the parts to a whole in system /structure/model

  • Identify functions of each part

  • Identify consequences to the whole, if a part was missing

  • Identify what collections of parts form important sub-systems of the whole

  • Identify if and how certain parts have a synergetic effect

Analysis

Evaluation

Meta-cognition

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


Inference and interpretation l.jpg

Inference and Interpretation

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

What do we do when we make inferences and interpretations?

  • Identify intentions and assumptions in data

  • Separate fact from opinion in data

  • Identify key points, connections, and contradictions in data

  • Make meaning of the data/information available

  • Establish a best picture to make predictions

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

Analysis

Evaluation

Meta-cognition

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


Evaluation l.jpg

Evaluation

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

What do we do when we evaluate?

  • Decide on what is to be evaluated

  • Identify appropriate criteria from which evaluation can be made

  • Prioritize the importance of the criteria

  • Apply the criteria and make decision

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

Analysis

Evaluation

Meta-cognition

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


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Meta-cognition

Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

What are we doing when we are meta-cognitive?

  • Aware that we can think in an organized manner

  • Actively thinking about the ways in which we are thinking

  • Monitoring and evaluating how effective we are thinking

  • Seeking to make more effective use of the different ways of thinking and any supporting learning/ thinking strategies /tools

Inference &

Interpretation

Comparison

& Contrast

Analysis

Evaluation

Meta-cognition

Generating Possibilities

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


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Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention

Put simply, meta-cognition is

What assumptions did I made?

  • Being aware of one’s thinking, evaluating how well we are using the range of specific types of thinking and taking necessary corrective action

How can I spot an error if I make one?

Do I know what do I need to know?

Thinking about your thinking

Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved


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What is Creativity?A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand.(summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)

<>

One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He noted that they were the eyes of a cat, which were reflecting the light from his head lights. Percy was intrigued by this …and subsequently invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic.

After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)


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The Creative Process

Interest

Preparation (ongoing- may be years)

Incubation (best between periods of intense focused work

and rest)

Illumination

Verification

Application


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Reframing & Creativity

“How your perceive something makes all the difference and

you are free to see things from any perspective you wish”

(Adler, 1996, p.145)

To shift to a different frame will typically reframe one’s perspective and

therefore, one’s meaning. And when we do this, our very world

changes, which changes the sensory experience, hence how we feel

Slimy Pond Life

or

Tasty Dinner?


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The problem of slow lifts


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Creative Thinking involves..

Generating many ideas Different types of ideasNovel ideas

All creative products involve the

combining of old ideas or elements

in new ways


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BRAINSTORMING

  • DEFER JUDGEMENT

  • STRIVE FOR QUANTITY

  • FREEWHEEL

  • HITCH HIKE

RULES


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Forced Associations (Random Triggers)

Forced Associations is a technique for linking another thinking pattern into

the one we are presently using. We do this by selecting a random concrete noun from a different field and combining it with the problem under consideration.

For example, we might be looking at ways to make lifts quicker.

By choosing a random word ‘Mirror’ could lead to installing mirrors by lifts.

As we know this is a popular solution for ‘slow lifts’. The lift doesn’t go faster,

but people waiting don’t notice this as they look in the mirror.

Force Associate

with ‘Mirror’


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PO (Provocative Operation)

  • PO involves making deliberately provocative statements, which seek to

  • force thinking out of established patterns.

  • Examples:“Everybody should go to prison”

  • “Lets abolish schools”

  • Having made a provocative statement, it is then necessary to suspend judgement

  • and use the statement to generate ideas. For example, you can generate ideas

  • by examining:

  • The consequences of the statement

  • What the benefits could be?

  • What would need to change in order to make it a sensible statement?

  • What would happen if a sequence of events changed?


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S

A

P

R

C

M

E

SCAMPER is a checklist that helps to

think of ways to improve existing products

or create new ones

Substitute

Combine

Adapt

Magnify, Minify, Modify

Put to other use

Eliminate

Reverse


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Morphological Matrix

This tool encourages new possibilities through combining options

OPTIONS

OPTIONS


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Ethics & Responsibility

Apply knowledge of sound values and ethics to professional and personal

life

  • Identify the need for values and ethical codes of conduct

  • Compare and contrast value systems and ethical codes of conduct

  • Analyse the impact of values and ethical codes of conduct on personal and professional behavior

  • Use ethical reasoning on issues relating to human conduct in personal and professional contexts

  • Demonstrate behaviour consistent with agreed codes of ethics and value systems

http://www.sp.edu.sg/wps/portal/vp-spws/!ut/p/c1/04_

SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_hQD1NXIzdTEwP_EC9TA0__

YFdLJ9cAIxMXU


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Activities

Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in

class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting

out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate

it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn

part of themselves.

(Chickering & Gamson)

However, activities for activity sake is as bad as dull lecturing - in fact the second sin of teaching. Good activities must be meaningful, challenging but achievable, and effective in terms of facilitating the desired learning outcomes


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Steps in Designing Learning Activities

Step 1: Identify the subject knowledge/skills and other graduate attribute components to be incorporated into the activity

For this step, it is important to:

  • Choose specific topic areas in your module(s)that contain knowledge essential for key understanding of the subject. For example, central concepts, principles and models.

  • Identify the graduate attribute knowledge/skill components (e.g., critical thinking, creative thinking, communications, teamwork, etc) that promote student understanding/ competence in applying these topic areas.


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Steps in designing learning activities

Step 2:Produce the learning activity

It is important that the activity:

  • Clearly involves the application of the range of knowledge and skills identified from Step 1.

  • Is sufficiently challenging, but realistically achievable in terms of student’s prior competence, access to resources, and time frames allocated.

  • Successful completion usually involves more than one correct answer or more than one correct way of achieving the correct answer

  • Clear notes of guidance are provided, which:

    • Identify the products of the activity and what formats of presentation are acceptable (e.g. written report, oral presentation, portfolio, etc)

    • Specify the parameters of the activity (e.g. time, length, areas to incorporate, individual/collaborative, how much choice is permitted, support provided, etc)

    • Cue the desired skills where relevant (e.g., types of thinking)

    • Spell out key aspects of the assessment process and criteria.


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“Teaching Holistically” What does this mean?

  • Understanding the connectedness of fields of knowledge

  • Ability to recognize and exploit “Teachable Moments”

  • Competence in ‘Social & Emotional Intelligence’


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What is a Teachable Moment?

A teachable moment is an unplanned opportunity

that arises in the classroom where a teacher has an

ideal chance to offer insight to his or her students.


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The Importance of ‘Emotionally Intelligent’ Teachers

How emotions impact learning

  • Determining attention

  • Memory and recall

  • Associate learning with pleasure, novelty and pain – hence can foster intrinsic interest, perseverance, etc – or kill it

  • Influence the affective climate of the classroom

“The emotions that teachers display – both consciously and

unconsciously – can significantly enhance or inhibit student learning”

(Powell & Powell, 2010)


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Imitation & Mirror Neurons

When people are interacting with each other, the same brain structures are

simultaneously activated in their brains. For example, if you watch someone making a

cup of coffee, your brain not only processes the action – it also reproduces it. Essentially, we are predisposed to imitate those around us, and much occurs subconsciously.

This has big implications for how we impart beliefs and values to students. To a large extent, what they see in our behaviour - their perception - may be central to how we might influence them in the affective domain, for better or for worst.


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What is Social Intelligence?

  • There are many definitions in the literature. A simple but useful one is..

    … the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with you (Karl Albrecht)

    Key skills include:

  • Sensory Acuity - ability to notice, to monitor, and to make sense of the

    external cues from other people. We do this through evaluating the

    result of any behaviour. Requires good observation and listening skills

  • Empathy - ability to put oneself into another persons situation and see the world from their set of experiences and perspective

  • Clarity of communication - ability to communicate clearly and authentically through calibration of words, tone and body language


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What is Emotional Intelligence?

Daniel Goleman’s 5 Dimensions

  • Self-Knowledge (Understanding oneself, integrating internal conflicts, knowing strengths & weaknesses emotionally)

  • Self-Management/Regulation (The ability not to just react to events, but consider carefully the implications and consequences)

  • Motivation (Our energy source – motivated teachers are seen as enthusiastic, optimistic and energetic)

  • Social Awareness (Ability to empathize and feel what others might be experiencing)

  • Relationship Management (Knowing how to use emotions – emotionally sensitive – in the ways we communicate with others to build rapport and motivate them)


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