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Living things are different but share similar structures (SC.F.1.2.3). By: Jorge Lallave. Grade Level Expectations. Students should distinguish common characteristics of vertebrate animals. Like mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians.

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Grade level expectations
Grade Level Expectations

  • Students should distinguish common characteristics of vertebrate animals. Like mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians.

  • Students should understands similarities and differences among plants.

  • Although plants and animals are different, they also share common characteristics.

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


How scientists group living things
How Scientists group living Things?

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Classification goes beyond kingdom level

All kingdoms can be broken in small groups according common characteristics.

A detail classification should includes the following steps in the ladder.

Phylum –Second highest classification it covers different groups with a common physical characteristics.

Class –Grouped families according a shared attribute. (mammals)

Order– How the a class group survive? (carnivorous, herbivorous)

Family – Taxonomic group containing one or more genera.

Genus – The second smallest group

Species –Smallest group whose members can interbreed.

The science of classifying things is called Taxonomy.

Classification goes beyond kingdom level

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Classification beyond kingdom level
Classification beyond kingdom level characteristics.

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Animal Kingdom-is composed of living things made of many cells. They must eat other animals or plants to survive.

Phylum

  • Vertebrate animals have backbone.

    Examples

  • Amphibians (moist skin, no scale)

    • Frogs, toads and newts.

  • Birds (wings,feather,beak)

  • Fish(fins, scales, gill)

  • Mammals ( hair, milk)

    • Dog, cats, bears.

  • Reptiles (dry, scale skin)

    • Snakes, turtles, alligator.

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Animal kingdom continues
Animal Kingdom Continues cells. They must eat other animals or plants to survive.

Phylum

  • Invertebrate animals do not have backbone.

    Examples

  • Arthropods (joints, shells)

    • Crustaceans (crab, lobster)

    • Insects (beetles, ants)

    • Arachnids (spiders)

  • Mollusks (sea creatures)

    • sponge

    • Snails

    • leaches

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Classifying the group of the animals according to the physical characteristics
Classifying the group of the animals according to the physical characteristics

Vertebrate

  • Amphibians

  • Birds

  • Fish

  • Mammals

  • Marsupials

  • Primates

  • Cetaceans

  • Reptiles

Invertebrate

  • Annelids

  • Arachnids

  • Crustaceans

  • Echinoderms

  • Insects

  • Mollusks

  • Protozoa

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Plant Kingdom- physical characteristicsiscomposed of all plants made of many cells with nuclei. Plants produce their own food.

  • Phylum

  • Vascular plants – have tubes on roots, stem, and leaves.

  • Examples

    • Trees, bushes, and ornamental plants

  • Seed plants

    • Angiosperms make their seeds in flowers.

    • Gymnosperms produced seed in cones (conifers, pine)

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Plant kingdom cont s
Plant Kingdom Cont’s… physical characteristics

  • Phylum

  • Nonvascular plants – don’t have tubes.

  • Examples

    • Lichens

    • Liverworts

  • Non-Seed plantsare able to produce new plants without seeds. (Sporea single reproductive cell)

    • Ferns

    • Mosses

    • Algae

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Plants anatomy

Botany physical characteristics is the study of plants. A scientist who studies plants is a botanist, and anatomy is a science that study how living things are including their parts.

Two main types of root:

taproot system, a single large root that grows straight down.

fibrous root system, smaller branching roots.

Plants Anatomy

(1)

(2)

  • Two main types of stem:

    • green stems are thin flexible tubes in a bundle that holds the plant.

    • woody stems grows taller and thicker every year.

(3)

(4)

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Plants anatomy cont s
Plants Anatomy Cont’s… physical characteristics

The tubes which carry water are called xylem, and the ones that carry the food are called phloem.

  • Two main types of leaves

    • Needle leaves are thin pointed, and very tough.

    • Broad leaves, are wider and expose more surface to the sun.

  • Main parts of a leaf

    • Central stalk called the “petiole”.

    • Lamina is the blade of a leaf.

    • Veins carry the water and food.

    • Tiny holes microscopic in size, called “stomates”.

    • Midribis the central rib of a leaf.

(1)

(2)

(3 to 7)

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Flowering plants physical characteristicshave a characteristics that all other kinds of plants do not have:Afloweras part of the plant where seeds are made.

  • Pistil- female reproductive tissue of a flower.

  • Style - is a long tube on top of the ovary, and below the stigma.

  • Anatomy of a flower

    • Anther - tip of a flower's stamen

    • Stamen- male reproductive organ, contains the pollen.

    • Filament- holds the anther and part of the stamen.

    • Ovary- is a female reproductive organ, base of the pistil.

    • Petal- leafy structures that comprise a flower.

    • Sepal- small leaves located directly under a flower.

    • Stem - supports the plant.

    • Stigma- uppermost part of the pistil, receives the male pollen.

(I)

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Classifying leaves
Classifying Leaves physical characteristics

Students should classify different leaves according to their: LEAF SHAPES

(Commonly-employed terms.)

  • Ovate-egg-shaped with the larger end at the bottom.

  • Elliptic-shaped like an ellipse, tapered at both ends and with curved sides.

  • Oblong-tapered to both ends, but with the sides more or less parallel.

  • Lanceolate-shaped like the tip of a lance.

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Classifying leaves1
Classifying Leaves physical characteristics

LEAF SHAPES (Commonly-employed terms.)

  • Linear- long and thin, with the sides parallel. Like grass leaves.

  • Orbicular-nearly circular in outline

  • Cordate-heart-shaped with the wide part at the bottom

  • Hastate-with two basal lobes that point straight out

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Classifying leaves2
Classifying Leaves physical characteristics

LEAF SHAPES (Commonly-employed terms.)

  • Sagittate-with two basal lobes that point backwards

  • Peltate-with the petiole attached to the center of the underside of the blade

  • Perfoliate-with the petiole appearing to run through the center of the leaf

  • Terete-circular in cross-section.

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Common characteristics
Common Characteristics physical characteristics

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Different characteristics
Different Characteristics physical characteristics

  • Animals move freely and plants are rooted in the soil.

  • Animals take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

  • Animals do not make their own food and do not have chlorophyll.

  • Animal cells do not have a cell wall.

  • Animals eat plants, but plants do not eat animals generally.

  • Animals in general are more advanced in their structure than plants.

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


Website activities
Website Activities physical characteristics

Animals

Plants

Games

House Experiments

Test

Fungi

Workbook

sheets

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


References
References physical characteristics

  • Harcourt Science, 4th grade “The Chameleon cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit A pp.4-110.

  • http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/plntcell.htm

  • Harcourt Science, 5th grade “The Frog cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit A pp.2-126.

  • www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html

  • http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/Animals/Animals.htm

  • http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/CURR/Science/sciber00/7th/classify/sciber/5king2.htm

  • http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/Animals/Animals.htm

  • http://csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/tfplab/vegchar.htm

  • http://www.dmturner.org/Teacher/Library/4thText/ PlantsPart1-4.html

Processes of Life USF/NSF/STARS


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