Stand density management from stand to forest estate stand level impacts
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Stand Density Management From Stand To Forest Estate - Stand Level Impacts. SISCO 2002 WINTER MEETING. Frank Barber Forest Practices Branch Ministry of Forests March, 2001. Stand Level Impacts of Spacing:.

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Stand Density Management From Stand To Forest Estate - Stand Level Impacts

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Stand Density Management From StandTo Forest Estate - Stand Level Impacts


Frank BarberForest Practices BranchMinistry of Forests

March, 2001

Stand Level Impacts of Spacing:

- species selection- pest/disease damage - stem defects (sweep, crook, forks) - windfirmness- piece size, stand operability and product diversity- LRF, mill productivity, harvesting/milling costs- merchantable volume and wood quality- Other linked treatments (prune/fert/CT)- Biodiversity/Wildlife Habitat- range- fire management- maximum density- employment

We are entering a new era in B.C.

Sustainable Forest Management Plans

Industry responsible for silviculture

Guidelines for Developing Stand Density Management Regimes

Incremental Silviculture Strategies in B.C. providing the wise investments

Source: Incremental Silviculture Strategy for British Columbia (Atherton, 1999)Source: Guidelines for Determining Stand Density Management Regimes, 1999.

Reality Check: Not every m3 of wood has the same value - Stand Operability, Merchantable Volume

Marginal Log piece size concept

25-30 cm break-even piece size

merchantable volume is > 25 cm

Source: SouthVancouver Island District, 2001

Impact of Piece Size on: Harvesting costs and product value

Data suggests the marginal log piece size on the coast is roughly 25-28 cm depending on equipment

Source:Potential financial returns from alternative silvicultural prescriptions in B.C. second-growth (Howard & Temesgen, 1997)

Impact of Spacing on: Stand/Stock Tables Distributions

Pre-commercial Hw Thinning Trial, Olympia Peninsula, Wash. (Site Index 36 m; 38 year results)

Total Vol.

575 m3/ha

605 m3/ha


135 m3/ha

320 m3/ha

Impact of Spacing on: piece size,operability and product diversity

Impact of Piece size On Lumber Recovery

Source: FORINTEK (2001)

Impact of Piece size on Mill Productivity - Example 1

Only a 5 cm shift in piece size

128 versus 100 piles of lumberin same shift

Source: Crop Planning from the logger’s viewpoint, or the economic benefits of bigger trees (Rotherham & Mooney, 1989)

Impact of Piece size on Mill Productivity - Example 2

mill handles 30 - 2.4 m logs/min 350 min per shift 10,500 logs 12.7 cm logs/shift = 65 MBF/shift 25 cm logs/shift = 336 MBF/shift A difference of $95,000 /shift

Source: Barbour, 1999. USDA FS, PNW Research Station

Impact of Piece size on Veneer Recovery

  • As small end diameter increases from 15-30 cm low value pulp chips drop from 48-24%

  • As small end diameter increase from 15-30 cm the highest value veneer (full sheet veneer) increases from 33-63%

Mill Manager !!!

Impact of Spacing on: Commercial Thinning

- Spacing can have a significant impact on CT viability- Commercial thinning can have major impacts on timber supply- Limited CT opportunities exist in natural unspaced stands that are at high densities

Source: Silviculture: Concepts and Applications, (Nyland, 1996) /Source: Enhanced Forestry Management Workshop - Stand Density Management (Edmonton - 1997)/Source: Commercial Thinning Workshop, Whitecourt, Alta, (Day, 1997)/Source: An Econ. Eval. of Commercial Thinning Douglas-fir in the Coastal Region of B.C. (Stone, 1993)/Source: Guidelines for Developing Stand Density Management Regimes (1999)Source: Guidelines for Commercial Thinning (1999)


  • silviculture strategies for 95% of the management units in BC providing the linkage between forest level objectives and stand level activities

  • Incremental silviculture activities are key tools used to improve stand quality and value

  • Forintek studies have been conducted to help provide information and guide stand density decision making

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