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Dissertation Defense. Importance of Leadership Competencies and Content for Athletic Training Education and Practice: A Delphi Technique and National Survey. Matthew R. Kutz. The perils of not understanding leadership. Introduction of Problem. Leadership identified as a need in AT

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Dissertation Defense

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Dissertation defense

Dissertation Defense

Importance of Leadership Competencies and Content for Athletic Training Education and Practice: A Delphi Technique and National Survey

MatthewR. Kutz


Dissertation defense

The perils of not understanding leadership


Introduction of problem

Introduction of Problem

  • Leadership identified as a need in AT

    • Little leadership literature in AT

      • If any, mostly theoretical

    • No literature in AT reports important competencies or content


Outcomes why leadership is important

Outcomes: Why leadership is important

  • Fosters awareness of mission and direction

  • Fosters team

  • Transforms and develops

  • Fosters innovation and creativity

  • Fosters dedication

  • Higher performance

    (Avery, 2006; Maccoby, 2000; House & Aditya, 1997; Zornada, 2005)


Purpose of this study

Purpose of this Study

  • Develop research-based list of leadership competencies needed for practice.

  • Identify leadership content and competencies

    • For inclusion in athletic training education

    • Differentiate by ATEP type & respondent group


Research questions

Research Questions

Phase 1

  • Leadership competencies

  • Leadership content

    Phase 2

  • Leadership competencies (per respondent category and demographics)

  • Typology of leadership competencies and content


Definition of terms

Other Terms

Leadership

Management

Demographic Variables

Delphi Technique

National Survey (LDAT)

Importance of Leadership Competencies

Importance of Leadership Content

For Practice

For Inclusion in ATEPs

Ind. variables

Different A.T. roles

Four types of ATEP

Definition of Terms


Justification

Justification

  • Supports and adds to RDS and GRC statements

  • A.T. literature does not address leadership competencies or content issues

  • Identifies leadership important for AT practice

  • AT stakeholder values


Background to literature review

Desired Hiring Criteria

Outcomes of Leadership

RDS Identifies Leadership

GRC Discusses Leadership

NATA Educational Competencies

Background to Literature Review

Evolving/ Emerging Profession


Literature review

RDS

Literature Review

Role of higher education in curriculum

Leadership theory & related behaviors

Evolution of AT education

  • Leadership development & competency development in AT education

Leadership development & competency development in healthcare

Leadership education & competency development

Leadership instruction


Theoretical framework

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4

Undergraduate-level leadership competencies & content

Higher Education graduate-level leadership competencies & content

Master’s-level appropriate leadership competencies & content

Doctoral-level appropriate leadership competencies & content

Entry-Level

Baccalaureate

Advanced-Practice Mastery

Scholar/Expert

Professional (Novice)

Entry-Level

Master’s

Post-Certification Master’s

Post-Certification

Doctorate

Leadership Content &

Competency Continuum

Theoretical Framework


Research design

Research Design

Two Phases, non-experimental, mixed-methods

  • Phase One: Exploratory Research

  • Phase Two: Causal Comparative


Population sampling plan

Population & Sampling Plan

Phase One: Delphi Technique

  • Target Population

    • 25,906 Eligible ATs

    • Estimated 1,218 faculty

  • Accessible Population

    • Faculty Experts

    • Practitioner Experts

  • Purposive Sampling Plan

    • Faculty Experts (limited to PD’s)

    • Practitioner Experts


Population sampling plan1

Population & Sampling Plan

National Survey (LDAT)

  • Target Population

    • 25,906 ATs.

    • Estimated 1,218 faculty

  • Accessible Population

    • 25,906 certified NATA members in the USA.

    • 1,218 Full time ATC faculty members

  • Sampling Plan

    • Simple random sample 1,000 certified NATA members

    • Total accessible population of AT full-time faculty (N=1,218)


Primary roles

Primary Roles

Practitioner

ELB

ELM

PCM

DOC


Demographic characteristics

Demographic Characteristics

Asian-American

Native-American

Male

Female

African-American

Hispanic

Caucasian


Demographic characteristics1

Demographic Characteristics

Age

Delphi (N=18)

LDAT (N=161)


Demographic professional characteristics

Demographic & Professional Characteristics

30-40K

CSCS

Region 4

Masters

Head AT

Coll./Univ.


Professional characteristics

Professional Characteristics

Highest Degree Earned

B.A.

M.S.

Doctorate


Professional characteristics1

Professional Characteristics

Years Experience

0-10yrs

11-15yrs

16-20yrs

21-25yrs

>26yrs


Professional characteristics2

Professional Characteristics

Certification Route

5yr rule

Internship

Curriculum ATEP


Comparative analysis

Comparative Analysis


Dissertation defense

Results & Interpretations


Dissertation defense

Instrumentation


Psychometric interpretations

Psychometric Interpretations

  • Reliability is acceptable

  • Validity is well established


Results interpretations research question 1

Round 1

All significant @ M=1.5, p<.05

10 additional competencies added

Round 2 (practice)

All significant @ M=1.0, p<.05

Round 2 (inclusion)

48:49 significant @ M=1.0, p<.05

Results & InterpretationsResearch Question 1


Results interpretations research question 2

Round 1

28:30 significant @ M=1.5, p<.05

5 additional content areas added

Round 2

31:35 significant @ M=1.0, p<.05

Results & InterpretationsResearch Question 2


Results interpretations research question 3

Results & InterpretationsResearch Question 3

  • 95% at least moderately important

  • 2 items rated higher by practitioners

  • 4 factors extracted, α = .83 to .93

    • Personality Characteristics

    • Diagnosing context/People skills

    • Communication/ Initiative

    • Strategic Thinking


Results interpretations research question 4

Results & InterpretationsResearch Question 4

  • Only Crisis mgmt. rated higher by females

  • 0 items rated different by certification route

  • Type of degree

    • Masters in AT rated all 4 factors higher…

  • Years of experience

    • 11-20yrs. rated all 4 factors higher…

  • Factor Correlations r=.64 to .85

  • Age:years AT r=.87

  • Age:edu level r=.16


Results interpretations research question 5

Results & InterpretationsResearch Question 5

  • 1 item rated higher by practitioners for ELB

  • 1 item rated higher by practitioners for ELM

  • 2 items rated higher by practitioners for PCM

  • 3 items rated higher by practitioners for DOC

    Individual Comps

    • 13 > ELM to ELB (27%)

    • 21 > PCM to EL (43%)

    • 9 > DOC to PCM (18%)

      4 factors extracted for inclusion in ATEPs

    • α = .88 to .93

    • Level of importance of each factor significantly increases with level/type


Results interpretations research question 6

Results & InterpretationsResearch Question 6

  • 1 item rated higher by practitioners for ELB

  • 0 items rated higher by respondents for ELM

  • 0 items rated higher by respondents for PCM

  • 1 item rated higher by faculty for DOC

    Individual Content

    • 18 > ELM to ELB (51%)

    • 25 > PCM to EL (71%)

    • 7 > DOC to PCM (20%)

      3 factors extracted

    • α = .84 to .91

    • All ELM>ELB, all PCM>EL; 1 & 3 DOC>PCM


Factor analysis rqs 5 6

Competency Factors

Personality Characteristics

Diagnosing context/ Strategic Thinking

Initiative

People skills/ Communication

Content Factors

Managerial Leadership and Knowledge Management

Leadership Theories

Leadership Issues, Trends, and Policies

Factor Analysis: RQs 5,6

Factor names were based on the literature.


Other findings

Other Findings

  • 18 practice competencies (37%) experts > national

  • 6 edu. competencies national > experts

  • 7 edu. competencies experts > national

  • 13 practice competencies masters in AT > other masters


Limitations

Limitations

  • Internal validity

    • Selection bias

    • The length of time

  • External validity

    • Response rate

    • Overrepresentation of employment setting

    • Ethnicity and generalized to United States

  • Similarity of leadership and management competency language


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • There is a high degree of agreement between all respondents

  • The leadership competencies and content for athletic training practice and inclusion in education are supported.

  • Usable research-based list of leadership competencies important for athletic training practice and for inclusion in athletic training education.

  • Usable research-based list of leadership content areas important for inclusion in athletic training education.


Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • Leadership constructs important for athletic training practice are:

    • Personality Characteristics

    • Diagnosing Context/People Skills

    • Communication/Initiative

    • Strategic Thinking


Conclusions2

Conclusions

  • Leadership constructs important for inclusion in athletic training education are:

    • Managerial Leadership and Knowledge Management

    • Leadership Theories

    • Leadership Issues, Trends, and Policies


Implications

Implications

  • Leadership curriculum and CEUs based on the 4 factors

  • Entry-level masters’ graduates should have “advanced” competence in leadership

  • Leadership development emphasis placed on the experience and age, less on gender


Implications1

Implications

  • Increasing levels of importance should be placed on leadership as AT progress in edu/experience

  • Highest importance placed on Diagnosing Context


Future inquiry

Future Inquiry

  • Further validate with Structural Equations Modeling (SEM)

  • More diversified field of primary respondent roles and settings

  • Leadership impact on athletic training success

  • How leadership competencies can be taught and objectively measured (input of stakeholders)


Future inquiry1

Future Inquiry

  • Delineate leadership competencies and management competencies

  • Perceived differences in expected outcomes of leadership according to level/type.

  • Leadership competency’s and content’s influence on practice

  • Investigate how leadership influences role and placement

  • Delineate leadership behaviors based stakeholder’s values


Dissertation defense

“Every day brings new challenges and problems that must be solved. The athletic trainer must be able to adapt to new situations with ease… [and] easily adjust and adapt to a given situation.”

(Prentice, 2006, p. 20)


Thank you

Thank You!


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