R K MOHANTY FACULTY MEMBER, SIR SPBT COLLEGE, CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA, MUMBAI. RATIO ANALYSIS. RATIO ANALYSIS.
FACULTY MEMBER, SIR SPBT COLLEGE,
CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA, MUMBAI
Ratio-analysis is a concept or technique which is as old as accounting concept. Financial analysis is a scientific tool. It has assumed important role as a tool for appraising the real worth of an enterprise, its performance during a period of time and its pit falls. Financial analysis is a vital apparatus for the interpretation of financial statements. It also helps to find out any cross-sectional and time series linkages between various ratios.
Unlike in the past when security was considered to be sufficient consideration for banks and financial institutions to grant loans and advances, nowadays the entire lending is need-based and the emphasis is on the financial viability of a proposal and not only on security alone. Further all business decision contains an element of risk. The risk is more in the case of decisions relating to credits. Ratio analysis and other quantitative techniques facilitate assessment of this risk.
Ratio-analysis means the process of computing, determining and presenting the relationship of related items and groups of items of the financial statements. They provide in a summarized and concise form of fairly good idea about the financial position of a unit. They are important tools for financial analysis.
Management AppraisalWHY FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
It’s a tool which enables the banker or lender to arrive at the following factors :
Current Liabilities are those which have either become due for payment or shall fall due for payment within 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet
Current Assets are those which undergo change in their shape/form within 12 months. These are also called Working Capital or Gross Working Capital
Net Worth & Long Term Liabilities are also called Long Term Sources of Funds
Current Liabilities are known as Short Term Sources of Funds
Long Term Liabilities & Short Term Liabilities are also called Outside Liabilities
Current Assets are Short Term Use of FundsSome important notes
Assets other than Current Assets are balanceLong Term Use of Funds
Installments of Term Loan Payable in 12 months are to be taken as Current Liability only for Calculation of Current Ratio & Quick Ratio.
If there is profit it shall become part of Net Worth under the head Reserves and if there is loss it will become part of Intangible Assets
Investments in Govt. Securities to be treated current only if these are marketable and due. Investments in other securities are to be treated Current if they are quoted. Investments in allied/associate/sister units or firms to be treated as Non-current.
Bonus Shares as issued by capitalization of General reserves and as such do not affect the Net Worth. With Rights Issue, change takes place in Net Worth and Current Ratio.Some important notes
Current Ratio balance: It is the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities of a concern.
Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities
If the Current Assets and Current Liabilities of a concern are Rs.4,00,000 and Rs.2,00,000 respectively, then the Current Ratio will be : Rs.4,00,000/Rs.2,00,000 = 2 : 1
The ideal Current Ratio preferred by Banks is 1.33 : 1
Net Working Capital : This is worked out as surplus of Long Term Sources over Long Tern Uses, alternatively it is the difference of Current Assets and Current Liabilities.
NWC = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
3. balanceACID TEST or QUICK RATIO : It is the ratio between Quick Current Assets and Current Liabilities. The should be at least equal to 1.
Quick Current Assets : Cash/Bank Balances + Receivables upto 6 months + Quickly realizable securities such as Govt. Securities or quickly marketable/quoted shares and Bank Fixed Deposits
Acid Test or Quick Ratio = Quick Current Assets/Current Liabilities
Inventories 1,50,000 Current Liabilities 1,00,000
Total Current Assets 3,00,000
Current Ratio = > 3,00,000/1,00,000 = 3 : 1
Quick Ratio = > 1,50,000/1,00,000 = 1.5 : 1
5. balancePROPRIETARY RATIO : This ratio indicates the extent to which Tangible Assets are financed by Owner’s Fund.
Proprietary Ratio = (Tangible Net Worth/Total Tangible Assets) x 100
The ratio will be 100% when there is no Borrowing for purchasing of Assets.
6. GROSS PROFIT RATIO : By comparing Gross Profit percentage to Net Sales we can arrive at the Gross Profit Ratio which indicates the manufacturing efficiency as well as the pricing policy of the concern.
Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit / Net Sales ) x 100
Alternatively , since Gross Profit is equal to Sales minus Cost of Goods Sold, it can also be interpreted as below :
Gross Profit Ratio = [ (Sales – Cost of goods sold)/ Net Sales] x 100
A higher Gross Profit Ratio indicates efficiency in production of the unit.
9. balanceSTOCK/INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO :
(Average Inventory/Sales) x 365 for days
(Average Inventory/Sales) x 52 for weeks
(Average Inventory/Sales) x 12 for months
Average Inventory or Stocks = (Opening Stock + Closing Stock)
. This ratio indicates the number of times the inventory is rotated during the relevant accounting period
10. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO balance: This is also called Debtors Velocity or Average Collection Period or Period of Credit given .
(Average Debtors/Sales ) x 365 for days
(52 for weeks & 12 for months)
11. ASSET TRUNOVER RATIO : Net Sales/Tangible Assets
12. FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales /Fixed Assets
13. CURRENT ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales / Current Assets
14. CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO : This is also called Creditors Velocity Ratio, which determines the creditor payment period.
(Average Creditors/Purchases)x365 for days
(52 for weeks & 12 for months)
15. RETRUN ON ASSETS : balanceNet Profit after Taxes/Total Assets
16. RETRUN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED :
( Net Profit before Interest & Tax / Average Capital Employed) x 100
Average Capital Employed is the average of the equity share capital and long term funds provided by the owners and the creditors of the firm at the beginning and end of the accounting period.
20. DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO : balanceThis ratio is one of the most important one which indicates the ability of an enterprise to meet its liabilities by way of payment of installments of Term Loans and Interest thereon from out of the cash accruals and forms the basis for fixation of the repayment schedule in respect of the Term Loans raised for a project.(The Ideal DSCR Ratio is considered to be 2 )
PAT + Depr. + Annual Interest on Long Term Loans & Liabilities
Annual interest on Long Term Loans & Liabilities + Annual Installments payable on Long Term Loans & Liabilities
( Where PAT is Profit after Tax and Depr. is Depreciation)
EXERCISE 1 balance
EXERCISE 2 balance
1. Tangible Net Worth for 1st Year : ( 300 + 140) - 50 = 390
2. Current Ratio for 2nd Year : (170 + 30 +170+20+ 240 + 190 ) / (580+70+80+70)
820 /800 = 1.02
3. Debt Equity Ratio for 1st Year : 320+150 / 390 = 1.21
Exercise 3. balance
1. Debt Equity Ratio will be : 600 / (200+100) = 2 : 1
2. Tangible Net Worth : Only equity Capital i.e. = 200
3. Total Outside Liabilities / Total Tangible Net Worth : (600+400+100) / 200
= 11 : 2
4. Current Ratio will be : (300 + 150 + 50 ) / (400 + 100 ) = 1 : 1
Exercise 4. balance
Exercise 4. contd… balance
Q . What is the Proprietary Ratio ? Ans : (T NW / Tangible Assets) x 100
[ (362 - 30 ) / (550 – 30)] x 100
(332 / 520) x 100 = 64%
Q . What is the Net Working Capital ?
Ans : C. A - C L. = 255 - 88 = 167
Q . If Net Sales is Rs.15 Lac, then What would be the Stock Turnover Ratio in Times ? Ans : Net Sales / Average Inventories/Stock
1500 / 128 = 12 times approximately
Exercise 4. contd… balance
Q. What is the Creditors Velocity Ratio if Purchases are Rs.10.5 Lac ?
Ans : (Average Creditors / Purchases ) x 12 = (26 / 1050) x 12 = 0.3 months
Exercise 5. : Profit to sales is 2% and amount of profit is say Rs.5 Lac. Then What is the amount of Sales ?
Answer : Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit / Sales ) x 100
2 = (5 x100) /Sales
Therefore Sales = 500/2 = Rs.250 Lac
Exercise 6. A Company has Net Worth of Rs.5 Lac, Term Liabilities of Rs.10 Lac. Fixed Assets worth RS.16 Lac and Current Assets are Rs.25 Lac. There is no intangible Assets or other Non Current Assets. Calculate its Net Working Capital.
Total Assets = 16 + 25 = Rs. 41 Lac
Total Liabilities = NW + LTL + CL = 5 + 10+ CL = 41 Lac
Current Liabilities = 41 – 15 = 26 Lac
Therefore Net Working Capital = C. A – C.L
= 25 – 26 = (- )1 Lac
Exercise 7 is say Rs.5 Lac. Then What is the amount of Sales ? : Current Ratio of a concern is 1 : 1. What will be the Net Working Capital ?
Answer : It suggest that the Current Assets is equal to Current Liabilities hence the NWC would be NIL ( since NWC = C.A - C.L )
Exercise 8 : Suppose Current Ratio is 4 : 1. NWC is Rs.30,000/-. What is the amount of Current Assets ?
Answer : 4a - 1a = 30,000
Therefore a = 10,000 i.e. Current Liabilities is Rs.10,000
Hence Current Assets would be 4a = 4 x 10,000 = Rs.40,000/-
Exercise 9. The amount of Term Loan installment is Rs.10000/ per month, monthly average interest on TL is Rs.5000/-. If the amount of Depreciation is Rs.30,000/- p.a. and PAT is Rs.2,70,000/-. What would be the DSCR ?
DSCR = (PAT + Depr + Annual Intt.) / Annual Intt + Annual Installment
= (270000 + 30000 + 60000 ) / 60000 + 120000
= 360000 / 180000 = 2
Exercise 10 : Total Liabilities of a firm is Rs.100 Lac and Current Ratio is 1.5 : 1. If Fixed Assets and Other Non Current Assets are to the tune of Rs. 70 Lac and Debt Equity Ratio being 3 : 1. What would be the Long Term Liabilities?
Ans : We can easily arrive at the amount of Current Asset being Rs. 30 Lac i.e. ( Rs. 100 L - Rs. 70 L ). If the Current Ratio is 1.5 : 1, then Current Liabilities works out to be Rs. 20 Lac. That means the aggregate of Net Worth and Long Term Liabilities would be Rs. 80 Lacs. If the Debt Equity Ratio is 3 : 1 then Debt works out to be Rs. 60 Lacs and equity Rs. 20 Lacs. Therefore the Long Term Liabilities would be Rs.60 Lac.
Exercise 11 : Current Ratio is say 1.2 : 1 . Total of balance sheet being Rs.22 Lac. The amount of Fixed Assets + Non Current Assets is Rs. 10 Lac. What would be the Current Liabilities?
Ans : When Total Assets is Rs.22 Lac then Current Assets would be 22 – 10 i.e Rs. 12 Lac. Thus we can easily arrive at the Current Liabilities figure which should be Rs. 10 Lac
EXERCISE 12. A firm sold its stocks in CASH, in order to meet its liquidity needs. Which of the following Ratio would be affected by this?
Debt Equity Ratio
Debt Service Coverage Ratio
EXERCISE 13. A company is found to be carrying a high DEBT EQUITY Ratio. To improve this, a bank may suggest the company to :
Raise long term interest free loans from friends and relatives
Raise long term loans from Institutions
Increase the Equity by way of Bonus Issue
Issue Rights share to existing share holders.
EXERCISE 14. Which of the following is a fictitious Asset?
Book Debts which have become doubtful of recovery
EXERCISE 15. Under which of the following methods of depreciation on Fixed Assets, the annual amount of depreciation decreases?
Written Down Value method
Straight Line method
Insurance policy method
EXERCISE 16 Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) shows :
Excess of current assets over current liabilities
Number of times the value of fixed assets covers the amount of loan
Number of times the company’s earnings cover the payment of interest and repayment of principal of long term debt
Effective utilisation of assets
EXERCISE 17. Which of the following is not considered a Quick Asset?
Cash and Bank balances
Bank Fixed Deposits
Current Book Debts
Loans and Advances
Questions on Fund Flow Statement depreciation on Fixed Assets, the annual amount of depreciation decreases?
Q . Fund Flow Statement is prepared from the Balance sheet :
Of three balance sheets
Of a single year
Of two consecutive years
None of the above.
Q. Why this Fund Flow Statement is studied for ?
It indicates the quantum of finance required
It is the indicator of utilisation of Bank funds by the concern
It shows the money available for repayment of loan
It will indicate the provisions against various expenses
Q . In a Fund Flow Statement , the assets are represented by ?
Application of Funds
Sources of Funds
Surplus of sources over application
Deficit of sources over application
Sources of Funds
Use of Funds
Deficit of sources over application
All of the above.
Q . When the long term sources are more than long term uses, in the fund flow statement, it would suggest ?
Increase in Current Liabilities
Decrease in Working Capital
Increase in NWC
Decrease in NWC
Q . When the long term uses in a fund flow statement are more than the long term sources, then it would mean ?
Reduction in the NWC
Reduction in the Working Capital Gap
Reduction in Working Capital
All of the above
Q. How many broader categories are there for the Sources of funds, in the Fund Flow Statement ?
Only One, Source of Funds
Two, Long Term and Short Term Sources
Three , Long, Medium and Short term sources
None of the above.