JOB ANALYSIS
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JOB ANALYSIS. IDENTIFY AND RATE JOB TASKS & KSAs. CONNECT TASKS TO KSAs. JOB DESCRIPTIONS. RECRUITMENT. DEVELOP SELECTION DEVICE (S). PERFORMANCE TEST (HANDS-ON). APPLICATION BLANKS. PAPER & PENCIL TESTS. SIMULATION TESTS. SITUATIONAL INTERVIEW. DEVELOP TRAINING

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JOB ANALYSIS

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Job analysis

JOB ANALYSIS

IDENTIFY AND RATE JOB

TASKS & KSAs

CONNECT TASKS

TO KSAs

JOB DESCRIPTIONS

RECRUITMENT

DEVELOP SELECTION

DEVICE (S)

PERFORMANCE

TEST (HANDS-ON)

APPLICATION

BLANKS

PAPER & PENCIL

TESTS

SIMULATION

TESTS

SITUATIONAL

INTERVIEW

DEVELOP

TRAINING

ASSESSMENTS

IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS &

TECHNIQUES

DEVELOP PERFORMANCE

EVALUATIONS

FEEDBACK AND

GOAL SETTING

CAREER

DEVELOPMENT


Job analysis

Basic Methods to Collect Job Analysis Information

Interviews (Individual or group)

Format: Individual or group with SME (Subject Matter Experts)

SMEs: Employees and/or supervisors

Key Points:

  • Make purpose of the job analysis clear

  • Interviewers need to be trained

  • Use a structured format

    Potential Limitations:

    Employees may distort the responsibilities of their job

    Supervisors may lack detailed information as to how the job is done


Job analysis

On-Site Observation

  • Best used for structured jobs

  • Need to get a representative sample

  • Need to be unobtrusive

  • Beneficial to use a structured format to record

    observations (see pg. 221 in text; FJA)

    Note: Some suggest that it’s best to observe before conducting interviews. In some cases, observations may not be possible (e.g., safety concerns, union objections)


Job analysis

Questionnaires (e.g., Position Analysis Questionnaire; PAQ)

Dimensions measured by the PAQ:

a) Where and how employees get job/task information

b) Cognitive process involved (e.g., planning, organization, making decisions)

c) Output (e.g., activities performed, tools/processes used)

d) Interpersonal relationships required (e.g., co-workers, clients)

e) Context of job (physical and social)

Advantages:

  • PAQ can allow comparisons and generalizations across jobs

  • Decent internal consistency reliability (.80)

  • Inter-rater reliability of .66

    Limitations:

  • Cannot clarify questions or follow up on respondents answers

  • Best used for manual labor jobs (lots of items related to equipment use)

  • Relatively high reading level level (10th - 12th grade)

  • Task differences may not be measured due to behavioral similarities


Job analysis

“Typical” Job Analysis Process

Develop Task Statements

Develop KSA Statements

Rate Task & KSA Statements

Connect Tasks & KSAs


Job analysis

Job Analysis Process for Employment Selection

  • Identification of work activities and development of job task statements

  • Develop a list of KSA’s necessary for adequate performance of the job tasks

  • Site observations to confirm and substantiate findings

  • Evaluate job tasks and KSA statements to discern (and document) their job-relatedness

  • Generate test items and evaluate their job-relatedness, or select existing tests for their job-relatedness

    6. Construct test instruments and assess their validity for purposes of selection/promotion decisions


Job analysis

Basic Task Statement Components

1)What is the action being performed? (using an action verb)

2)To Whom/What is the action directed? (the object, or receiver, of the action verb)

3)How is the action performed? (e.g., use of certain procedures, equipment, tools). The “how” is arguably the most crucial part of the task statement in that it directly relates to KSAs

4)Why is the action being performed? (the purpose of the action). Often, it is preceded by words such as “in order to” or “so as to.” Be careful not to confuse the “why’ part of the statement with the “what” section


Job analysis

Sample Task Statement

What?To What?

Inspects (Visually or manually) parts, equipment, and systems such as valves, thermostats, filters,

motors, pumps, space heating equipment, boilers, generators, incinerators, burner systems, air

How?

handling units and piping systems by using calibration equipment, hand tools, multi-meters, and

temperature and pressure gauges following oral and/or written instructions (e.g., supervisor

Why?

directives, operator manuals) in order to comply with maintenance requirements and determine

the cause of malfunctions.


Job analysis

Sample Task Statements

  • Performs mathematical, algebraic, and geometric computations, such as fractions to decimals, metric units to English, computing ratios and percentages, and calculation of area and volume by using rules, charts, formulas, calculators, and tables in order to maintain a variety of mechanical equipment.

    2) Performs a variety of measurements such as motion, forces, temperature, and fluid properties using temperature thermostats, barometers, motion detectors, and pressure gauges in order to obtain a reading.

  • Lifts materials of varying weights and sizes such as pumps, blowers,

    piping, valves, and rotating and reciprocating equipment by the proper and

    safe use of hoists, pulleys and rigging accessories in order to set

    and maintain equipment and avoid personal injury and property damage.

    4) Measures objects, shafts, and distances using non-precision and precision instruments such as rulers, inside and outside calipers, micrometers, and

    dial indicators in order to check for clearances, tolerances, and

    discrepancies.


Job analysis

Sample KSA Statements

A) Ability to perform mathematical operations, using a calculator, to

compute conversions, ratios, and percentages.

B) Ability to select and use a variety of precision and non-precision

measuring instruments.

C) Ability to troubleshoot equipment by using an analytical, step-by-step

process, standard procedures, and troubleshooting guides.

D) Knowledge of mechanical principles, terminology, and equipment

E) Ability to read, comprehend, and follow complex written instructions

and procedures.

F) Ability to transport equipment and supplies weighing up to 100 pounds

either manually or with the use of equipment (e.g., hoists, hand trucks)

for a distance of 30 feet.


Job analysis

Task Rating Form

A BC D E


Job analysis

KSA Rating Form


Job analysis

TASK -- KSA MATRIX

To what extent is each KSA needed when performing each job task?

5 = Extremely necessary, the job task cannot be performed without the KSA

4 = Very necessary, the KSA is very helpful when performing the job task

3 = Moderately necessary, the KSA is moderately helpful when performing the job task

2 = Slightly necessary, the KSA is slightly helpful when performing the job task

1 = Not necessary, the KSA is not used when performing the job task


Job analysis

A Legally Defensibly Job Analysis

1) A job analysis must be performed on the exact job which the selection/promotion

device is to be used

2) The analysis must be reduced to a written form (e.g., a job description)

3) The job analyst must be able to describe the procedures used to collect information

4) Data must be collected from several up-to-date sources

5) Data must be collected by a qualified job analyst

6) Data must be collected from a large enough sample of individual for the job in

question

7) Tasks, duties, and activities must be identified and the relative degree of competency required must be specified

8) KSAs are mentioned most frequently as the type of information to be identified

through a job analysis

9) Task specification is seen as a prerequisite to an acceptable job analysis


Job analysis

Kirkland v. Department of Correctional Services (1974)

"Without such an analysis (job analysis) to single out the critical knowledge, skills and abilities required by the job, their importance relative importance to each other, and the level of proficiency demanded as to each attribute, a test constructor is aiming in the dark and can only hope to achieve job relatedness by blind luck”

  • The KSAs tested for must be critical to successful job performance

  • Portions of the exam should be accurately weighted to reflect the relative importance to the job of the attributes for which they test

    c) The level of difficulty of the exam material should match the level of difficulty of the job


Job analysis

Checklist Used to Match Selectors with Job Requirements

Selection Method

H.R.

Employment

Interview

Work

Samples

Test

Medical

Exam &

Drug Test

Technical

Interview

Application

Form

Paper and

Pencil Test

Reference

Checks

Job Requirements

1. Ability to perform

calculations and understand

Charts, formulas and tables.

2. Ability to read prints

and drawings

3. Ability to troubleshoot

mechanical equipment.

4. Knowledge and use of safe

practices when handling

Materials and tools.

5. Ability to use & care for

hand and power tools to

maintain mechanical

Equipment.

6. Knowledge of basic

principles of hydraulic,

pneumatic, and compressed

air systems.

Previous work experience in

hazardous work environments

Relevant experience and

training in mechanical

maintenance.

Prerequisites


Job analysis

Competency Modeling

[What is a competency?]

SME group in Schippman et al (2000)

Recent definitions in the literature


Job analysis

Traditional job analysis versus competency modeling

  • Overall, job analysis is more rigorous on a multitude of criteria (e.g., type of content, detail, data collection methods, ranking/prioritizing content)

  • Competency modeling was judged to be superior on “linking

    research results to business goals”

    >>>So, competency modeling may not be an adequate substitute for job analysis


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