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Schizophrenia. Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations Negative symptoms are those that take away from the norm – ie loss of pleasure, motivation, interest

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Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations

  • Negative symptoms are those that take away from the norm – ie loss of pleasure, motivation, interest
  • Diagnosis – Must have at least 2 of the following 5 symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms.
  • Must have been present for more than 6 months and seriously affect ability to maintain normal functioning
delusions
Delusions
  • Fixed false belief held with certainty.
  • Persecution
  • Reference
  • Control
  • Grandeur
  • Thought broadcasting
  • Thought insertion
hallucinations
Hallucinations
  • Perceptual distortions of sensory information
  • Can affect any of the senses but most often affects hearing (ie hearing voices)
  • Voices are usually critical or unfriendly
disorganised speech
Disorganised speech
  • Derailment – rapid shifts from topic to topic
  • Perseveration – constant repetition of words or phrases
  • Neologisms – making up new words only they know
  • Clang – meaningless rhyming words
grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour
Grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour
  • Disorganisedbehaviour – behave inappropriately, dress strangely, poor personal hygiene
  • Catatonic behaviour – can range from extremely agitated behaviour to none at all.
  • Catatonic stupor
  • Catatonic posturing
  • Waxy flexibility
negative symptoms
Negative symptoms
  • Affective flattening
  • Avolition (apathy) lack of energy or enthusiasm for anything
  • Alogia (poverty of speech) may not say much or may use a lot of words but convey very little meaning
  • L.A. 16.2 p783 Qu 2, 4, 7,
biological factors
Biological factors
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Drug induced
  • Changes in brain activity
  • L.A. 16.5 p790 Qu 1a,b, 2, 5
use of medication
Use of Medication
  • Dopamine hypothesis – read cigarette article
  • Anti psychotics work by blocking dopamine activity. They are therefore antagonists.
  • L.A. 16.6 p793 Qu 1, 2, 3, 4c, 6
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