Schizophrenia
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Schizophrenia. Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations Negative symptoms are those that take away from the norm – ie loss of pleasure, motivation, interest

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  • Positive symptoms are those that happen in addition to the norm – ie delusions, hallucinations

  • Negative symptoms are those that take away from the norm – ie loss of pleasure, motivation, interest

  • Diagnosis – Must have at least 2 of the following 5 symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms.

  • Must have been present for more than 6 months and seriously affect ability to maintain normal functioning


Delusions
Delusions norm –

  • Fixed false belief held with certainty.

  • Persecution

  • Reference

  • Control

  • Grandeur

  • Thought broadcasting

  • Thought insertion


Hallucinations
Hallucinations norm –

  • Perceptual distortions of sensory information

  • Can affect any of the senses but most often affects hearing (ie hearing voices)

  • Voices are usually critical or unfriendly


Disorganised speech
Disorganised norm – speech

  • Derailment – rapid shifts from topic to topic

  • Perseveration – constant repetition of words or phrases

  • Neologisms – making up new words only they know

  • Clang – meaningless rhyming words


Grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour
Grossly norm – disorganised or catatonic behaviour

  • Disorganisedbehaviour – behave inappropriately, dress strangely, poor personal hygiene

  • Catatonic behaviour – can range from extremely agitated behaviour to none at all.

  • Catatonic stupor

  • Catatonic posturing

  • Waxy flexibility


Negative symptoms
Negative symptoms norm –

  • Affective flattening

  • Avolition (apathy) lack of energy or enthusiasm for anything

  • Alogia (poverty of speech) may not say much or may use a lot of words but convey very little meaning

  • L.A. 16.2 p783 Qu 2, 4, 7,


Biological factors
Biological factors norm –

  • Genetic predisposition

  • Drug induced

  • Changes in brain activity

  • L.A. 16.5 p790 Qu 1a,b, 2, 5


Use of medication
Use of Medication norm –

  • Dopamine hypothesis – read cigarette article

  • Anti psychotics work by blocking dopamine activity. They are therefore antagonists.

  • L.A. 16.6 p793 Qu 1, 2, 3, 4c, 6


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