A framework for perceptual studies in photorealistic augmented reality
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A Framework for Perceptual Studies in Photorealistic Augmented Reality. Martin Knecht 1 , Andreas Dünser 2 , Christoph Traxler 1 , Michael Wimmer 1 and Raphael Grasset 3. 1 Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms Vienna University of Technology. 2 HIT Lab NZ University of Canterbury.

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A Framework for Perceptual Studies in Photorealistic Augmented Reality

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A framework for perceptual studies in photorealistic augmented reality

A Framework for Perceptual Studies in Photorealistic Augmented Reality

Martin Knecht1, Andreas Dünser2,Christoph Traxler1, Michael Wimmer1 and Raphael Grasset3

1 Institute of Computer Graphicsand Algorithms

Vienna University of Technology

2 HIT Lab NZ

University of Canterbury

3 HIT Lab NZ / ICG

University of Canterbury /Graz University of Technology


Introduction

Introduction

  • Motivation

  • Perceptual Issues

  • Framework

  • Pilot Study

  • Limitations

  • Future Work

  • Conclusion

Martin Knecht


Motivation

Motivation

  • Is this a photograph or computer generated?

  • What visual factors affect your decision? Rademacher P., et al. (2001)

Courtesy of Rademacher et al. (2001)

Martin Knecht


Motivation1

Motivation

  • People are very good in judging if an image looks photo-realistic or notBut process behind it not fully understood!

  • In augmented reality (AR) virtual objects should be rendered in a photorealistic way

  • Goal: A framework that allows us to study photorealistic rendering techniques at real-time frame rates

Martin Knecht


Perceptual issues

Perceptual Issues

  • Kruijff E., et al. (2010) distinguish between two types of problems:

    • Technological limitations

    • Perceptual nature

  • Proposed framework focuses on perceptual issues

Martin Knecht


Perceptual pipeline

Perceptual Pipeline

  • Perceptual pipeline used to classify issuesKruijff E., et al. (2010)

Environment

Capturing

AR Framework

Augmentation

Display Device

User

Martin Knecht


Capturing augmentation stages

Capturing / Augmentation Stages

  • Capturing: Covers the process of converting the optical image to a digital one Kruijff E., et al. (2010)

    • Image resolution, lens distortion,exposure, color correctness,…

  • Augmentation: Deals with adding the virtual objects into the augmented sceneKruijff E., et al. (2010)

    • Registration errors, occlusion, rendering,…

Martin Knecht


Framework

Framework

  • Our contribution:

    • Framework to study photorealistic rendering techniques

    • Interactive tasks with global illumination

    • Three different rendering modes

    • Fast prototyping of experiments (XML)

    • A pilot study to test framework

Martin Knecht


Framework1

Framework

  • Differential instant radiosity is used to render the scenes Knecht M., et al. (2010)

  • Rendering modes can be changed during run-time

    • Mode A: shadows / indirect illumination

    • Mode B: shadows / indirect illumination

    • Mode C: shadows / indirect illumination

Martin Knecht


Rendering mode a

Rendering Mode A

  • Different rendering modes are supported

    • No shadows

    • No indirect illumination

Martin Knecht


Rendering mode b

Rendering Mode B

  • Different rendering modes are supported

    • With shadows

    • No indirect illumination

Martin Knecht


Rendering mode c

Rendering Mode C

  • Different rendering modes are supported

    • With shadows

    • With indirect illumination

Martin Knecht


Pilot study

Pilot Study

  • Pilot study to evaluate our framework

  • Twenty-one participants (15 male, 6 female)

  • Age between 19 – 59

  • 5 tasks

Martin Knecht


Pilot study1

Pilot Study

  • Task 1: Estimate distance between real and virtual cubes

Martin Knecht


Pilot study2

Pilot Study

  • Task 2: Place real cube at position of virtual one

Martin Knecht


Pilot study3

Pilot Study

  • Task 3: Place virtual cube at position of real one using computer keyboard

Martin Knecht


Pilot study4

Pilot Study

  • Task 4: Grab and lift real cube

Martin Knecht


Pilot study5

Pilot Study

  • Task 5: Grab and lift virtual cube - real cube was used for tactile feedback

Martin Knecht


Pilot study6

Pilot Study

  • Duration: 30 to 60 minutes

  • Interview followed afterwards

  • Measured

    • Distance error for tasks 1, 2, 3

    • Time for tasks 2, 3, 4, 5

  • Analyzed data using non-parametric Friedman tests

  • Result: No significant effect of rendering technique found

Martin Knecht


Pilot study7

Pilot Study

Martin Knecht


Pilot study8

Pilot Study

Martin Knecht


Pilot study9

Pilot Study

  • Distance estimation perceived easier by 6 participants in left/right and height direction than in depth

    • Although no significant effect was found

Martin Knecht


Pilot study10

Pilot Study

  • Participants made heavy use of occlusion cue to place cubes in Task 2 & 3 – (19 out of 20)

Martin Knecht


Pilot study11

Pilot Study

  • 7 participants preferred manipulation with a computer keyboard (Task 2 vs. Task 3).

Martin Knecht


Limitations

Limitations

  • No support for stereo rendering

  • No distance information of environment

  • Only video see-through HMDs are supported

  • Tone-mapping still needs manual fine tuning

  • No support for mobile devices

Martin Knecht


Future work

Future Work

  • Enhance rendering framework

    • Support for stereo rendering

    • Add camera artifacts

  • New studies with new tasks

    • Tasks without occlusion information

    • Use chin rest to reduce movement

    • Design new tasks

Martin Knecht


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • We proposed a research test-bed for perceptual studies – still work in progress

  • Different rendering modes allow new kind of experiments

  • We showed the results of a pilot study using our framework

Martin Knecht


A framework for perceptual studies in photorealistic augmented reality

  • Thank you for your attention!

  • What features would you like to have in such a framework?

Martin Knecht


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