Physiological Maturity and Effect of Seed Priming on  Germination  Ability of Vegetable Soybean
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Physiological Maturity and Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Ability of Vegetable Soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Aye Nwe Win 1 (Master of Science in Horticulture) Kassinee Sitthiwong 1 Surat Nuglor 2 and Pornpan Pooprompan 1 *.

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Physiological Maturity and Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Ability of Vegetable Soybean

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Physiological Maturity and Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Ability of Vegetable Soybean

(Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

Aye Nwe Win1

(Master of Science in Horticulture)

Kassinee Sitthiwong1 Surat Nuglor 2 and Pornpan Pooprompan1*

1.Faculty of Agricultural Production, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai, 50290.

2.Faculty of Engineering and Agro- Industry, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai, 50290.


Introduction

  • Good soybean seeds ensure a uniform stand of healthy and vigorous plants, which is essential to get the high yield and good quality needed for profitable vegetable soybean production.

  • Producing good quality seed depends on many factors, such as, growing season, location, management inputs, diseases and pests, post-harvest handling and storage.


  • Physiological maturity is defined as the time when seeds attain maximum dry weight, maximum germination, and maximum vigor .

    (Mejia, 1985)

  • Seed priming is a technique in which seeds are partially hydrated until the germination process begins but radicle emergence does not occur.

    (Bradford,1986)

  • PEG-6000 increased seed germination and vigor index.

    (Gongping et al.,2000)


Objectives

  • To observe the physiological maturity between two varieties of vegetable soybean

  • To improve the germination rate and uniformity


Materials and Methods

Field experiments

Physiological Maturity of vegetable soybean

  • Two environments – Dry and rainy seasons

    (2010)

  • Design- RCBD with 2 replications


Field experiments

  • Variety - Two varieties

    (AGS 292 and No.75)

  • Plot size - 8 m x 1 m

  • Plant spacing - 20 cm x 50 cm

  • Seed rate - 5 seeds / hill


Tagging of flowers


Moisture content (%)

Fresh seed - 5 gm

Weigh with Electric balance

Oven (103°C 17 hr)

Desiccator

(20-30minutes)

Dry seed wt.


Dry matter (gm)

Weigh with Electric balance

Put 25 pods

Dry seed wt.

Oven (103°C17 hr)

Desiccator

(20-30minutes)


Germination %

Seed

Germinator

Seedling

Number of normal seedlings

Germination % = x 100 %

Number of seeds

Evaluation of germination test

(a) Normal seedlings (c) Fresh ungerminated seeds

(b) Abnormal seedlings (d) Hard seeds and (e) Dead seeds


Laboratory experiment

Chemical priming method - PEG-

6000 conc:

(Polyethylene glycol)

Design- 4 x4 Factorial in CRD


  • Factors - concentrations and soaking time

  • Factor (A) - PEG 6000(conc:)

    0, 2.4 , 4.7 and 6.5 g/ 100 ml. water

  • Factor (B) - soaking time

    3, 6, 9 and 12 hr

  • Variety - Two varieties

    (AGS 292 and No.75)


Chemical- priming method(PEG)

50 seeds / replication

PEG conc (A): 0, 2.4, 4.7, 6.5 g / 100 ml. water

Soaking Time(B)

3, 6, 9,12hr

Washing

Drying

Germination test (B.P.)


Seed weighing

PEG conc.

Mixing Seeds and PEG

Procedure

Germination test

Washing

Weight (Original weight)

Re-dried


  • The primed seeds were washed with running tap water. (Lee and Kim, 1999)

  • Seeds were soaked in distilled water. After soaking seeds were redried to the original weight with forced air under shade.

  • (Bennett & Waters, 1987)


Germination %

Seed

Germinator

Seedling

Number of normal seedlings

Germination % = x 100 %

Number of seeds

Evaluation of germination test

(a) Normal seedlings (c) Fresh ungerminated seeds

(b) Abnormal seedlings (d) Hard seeds and (e) Dead seeds


Seedling growth rate (SGR)

Normal seedlings (dry weight)

SGR =

(mg/seedlings) No. of normal seedling

Normal seedling

Oven (80°C 24hr)

Weigh with electrical balance


Electrical conductivity(EC)

(µS/cm/seed)

Conductivity meter


Results


Pod color of vegetable soybean

1

2

3

4

5

10

9

8

6

7


Seed color of vegetable soybean

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10


Fig.1. Seed dry matter, moisture content and germination percentage of vegetable soybean variety (AGS 292) during seed development in dry season


Fig.2. Seed dry matter, moisture content and germination percentage of vegetable soybean variety (No.75) during seed development in dry season


Fig.3. Seed dry matter, moisture content and germination percentage of vegetable soybean variety (AGS 292) during seed development inrainy season


Fig.4. Seed dry matter, moisture content and germination percentage of vegetable soybean variety (No.75) during seed development in rainy season


Table 1. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on germination percentage of vegetable soybean variety AGS 292

F-test PEG-conc. (A) *

Soaking time (B) ns

A x B ns


Table 2. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on seedling growth rate (SGR) of vegetable soybean variety AGS 292

F-test PEG-conc. (A) ns

Soaking time (B) ns

A x B ns


Table 3. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on electrical conductivity (EC) of vegetable soybean variety AGS 292

F-test PEG-conc. (A) **

Soaking time (B) **

A x B *


Seed germination of vegetable soybean seeds from AGS 292

PEG 0

PEG 2.4 g

PEG 4.7 g

PEG 6.5 g


Table 4. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on germination percentage of vegetable soybean variety No.75

F-test PEG-conc. (A) ns

Soaking time (B) ns

A x B ns


Table 5. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on seedling growth rate (SGR) of vegetable soybean variety No.75

F-test PEG-conc. (A) ns

Soaking time (B) ns

A x B ns


Table 6. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on electrical conductivity (EC) of vegetable soybean variety No.75

F-test PEG-conc. (A) **

Soaking time (B) **

A x B *


Seed germination of vegetable soybean seeds from No.75

PEG 0

PEG 2.4 g

PEG 4.7 g

PEG 6.5 g


Table 7. Effect of PEG conc: and soaking time duration treated with two vegetable soybean varieties (AGS 292 and No.75) for germination percentage, seedling growth rate (SGR) and electrical conductivity (EC)

ns= not significantly different (p> 0.05)

*= significantly different (p< 0.05)

**= highly significantly different (p< 0.01)


Table 8. Effect of different PEG concentration treated with two vegetable soybean varieties (AGS 292 and No.75) for germination percentage, seedling growth rate (SGR) and electrical conductivity (EC)

ns = not significantly different (p> 0.05)

* = significantly different (p< 0.05)

**= highly significantly different (p< 0.01)


Fig.5. Effect of PEG concentration and soaking time on electrical conductivity value of vegetable soybean (AGS 292 and No.75)


Discussion

  • The change in seed color and in pod color could be dependable indicators in vegetable soybean. Visual indicators of PM had also been suggested for soybean (Crookston and Hill, 1978; Tekrony et al.,1979 and Gibkpi and Crookston,1981).

  • Odell et al., (1992) reported improvement in the germination of PEG treated tomato seeds than non treated tomato seeds.


Discussion

  • Murray (1990) observed in germination due to PEG. This may be due to fact that response to the PEG treatment is dependent on cultivars.

  • Murray (1989) concluded that over priming may cause oxygen deficiency.

  • Priming seeds might have plasma membrane structure by slow hydration than non treated seeds. ( Jett et al., 1996)


Conclusion

  • AGS 292 and No.75 vegetable soybean varieties should be harvested within two weeks after physiological maturity to obtain maximum yield without any loss in quality.

  • PEG concentration improved the germination percentage than non treated PEG.

  • Seed treated with PEG decreased electrical conductivity value.


Acknowledgements

  • Thailand International Co-operation Agency (TICA)


THANK YOU


Fig.1. Temperature and rainfall in dry season


Fig. 2.Temperature and rainfall in rainy season


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