# MATTER AND TEMPERATURE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MATTER AND TEMPERATURE. Chapter Ten: Matter and Temperature. 10.1 The Nature of Matter 10.2 Temperature 10.3 The Phases of Matter. Chapter 10.1 Learning Goals. Define matter. Identify the atom as the building block of matter.

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MATTER AND TEMPERATURE

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MATTER AND TEMPERATURE

### Chapter Ten: Matter andTemperature

• 10.1 The Nature of Matter

• 10.2 Temperature

• 10.3 The Phases of Matter

### Chapter 10.1 Learning Goals

• Define matter.

• Identify the atom as the building block of matter.

• Explain the basis for classifying matter as either pure substances or mixtures.

Key Question:

Is the matter a pure substance or is it a mixture?

### Investigation 10A

Pure Substance or Mixture

### 10.1 The Nature of Matter

• Matteris a term used to describe anything that has mass and takes up space.

• Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus proposed that matter is made of tiny particles called atoms.

• Atoms were an idea that few believed.

• The first evidence was called Brownian motion for Robert Brown, who first noticed the jerky motion of tiny particles.

### 10.1 The Nature of Matter

• Throwing marbles at a tire tube moves the tube smoothly.

• Throwing the same marbles at a foam cup moves the cup in a jerky way, like Brownian motion.

• Varying the mass and size of particles that collide can have different effects.

### 10.1 Elements

• An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substance by chemical or physical means.

• All of the matter you are ever likely to experience is made from one or more elements in nature.

### 10.1 Elements

• For example, water can be broken down into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen, when energy is added.

### 10.1 Atoms

• A single atom is the smallest particle that retains the chemical identity of the element.

### 10.1 Atoms

• Carbon atoms are different from sodium, aluminum, or oxygen atoms.

• They have different masses.

### 10.1 Compounds and elements

• Compounds are two or more different elements chemically bonded together.

### 10.1 Examples of compounds

• Compounds contain more than one type of atom chemically joined together.

### 10.1 Molecules

• A molecule is a group of two or more atoms joined together chemically.

### 10.1 Mixtures

• Many substances you encounter are a mixtureof different elements and compounds.

How many atoms are in this mixture?

How many molecules are in this mixture?

### 10.1 Elements, compounds, and mixtures

Can you distinguish between atoms and molecules in these images?

### 10.2 Temperature

• There are two common temperature scales.

• On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees.

• The Celsius scale divides the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100 degrees.

### 10.2 What temperature really is

• Atoms are in constant motion, even in a solid object.

• The back-and-forth jiggling of atoms is caused by thermal energy, which is a kind of kinetic energy.

### 10.2 What temperature really is

• Temperature measures the kinetic energy per molecule due to random motion.

### 10.2 Converting to Kelvin

• The Kelvin temperature scale is useful in science because it starts at absolute zero.

• To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, you add 273 to the temperature in Celsius.

### 10.3 Phases of Matter

• On Earth, pure substances are usually found as solids, liquids, or gases.

• These are called phases of matter.

### 10.3 The phases of matter

• A solid holds its shape and does not flow.

• The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don’t move far from their places.

### 10.3 The phases of matter

• A liquid holds its volume, but does not hold its shape—it flows.

• Liquids flow because the molecules can move around.

### 10.3 The phases of matter

• A gas flows like a liquid, but can also expand or contract to fill a container.

• A gas does not hold its volume.

• The molecules in a gas have enough energy to completely break away from each other.

When they are close together, molecules are attracted through intermolecular forces.

### 10.3 The phases of matter

The forces in chemical bonds are stronger than intermolecular forces.

### 10.3 Intermolecular forces

• Within all matter, there is a constant competition between temperature and intermolecular forces.

• When temperature wins the competition, molecules fly apart and you have a gas.

• When intermolecular forces win the competition, molecules clump tightly together and you have a solid.

### 10.3 Melting and boiling

• The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

### 10.3 Melting and boiling

• The temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas is called the boiling point.

Notice temperature is constant while ice melts!

### 10.3 Melting and boiling points ofcommon substances

• Materials have a wide range of melting and boiling points.

### 10.3 Sublimation

• Sometimes a solid can change directly to a gas when heat energy is added.

• This process is called sublimation.

### 10.3 Plasma

• In the plasma phase, matter becomes ionized as electrons are broken loose from atoms.

• The Sun is made of plasma, as is most of the universe, including the Orion nebula.