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MATTER AND TEMPERATURE. Chapter Ten: Matter and Temperature. 10.1 The Nature of Matter 10.2 Temperature 10.3 The Phases of Matter. Chapter 10.1 Learning Goals. Define matter. Identify the atom as the building block of matter.

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Matter and temperature


Chapter ten matter and temperature

Chapter Ten: Matter andTemperature

  • 10.1 The Nature of Matter

  • 10.2 Temperature

  • 10.3 The Phases of Matter

Chapter 10 1 learning goals

Chapter 10.1 Learning Goals

  • Define matter.

  • Identify the atom as the building block of matter.

  • Explain the basis for classifying matter as either pure substances or mixtures.

Investigation 10a

Key Question:

Is the matter a pure substance or is it a mixture?

Investigation 10A

Pure Substance or Mixture

10 1 the nature of matter

10.1 The Nature of Matter

  • Matteris a term used to describe anything that has mass and takes up space.

  • Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus proposed that matter is made of tiny particles called atoms.

  • Atoms were an idea that few believed.

  • The first evidence was called Brownian motion for Robert Brown, who first noticed the jerky motion of tiny particles.

10 1 the nature of matter1

10.1 The Nature of Matter

  • Throwing marbles at a tire tube moves the tube smoothly.

  • Throwing the same marbles at a foam cup moves the cup in a jerky way, like Brownian motion.

  • Varying the mass and size of particles that collide can have different effects.

10 1 elements

10.1 Elements

  • An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substance by chemical or physical means.

  • All of the matter you are ever likely to experience is made from one or more elements in nature.

10 1 elements1

10.1 Elements

  • For example, water can be broken down into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen, when energy is added.

10 1 atoms

10.1 Atoms

  • A single atom is the smallest particle that retains the chemical identity of the element.

10 1 atoms1

10.1 Atoms

  • Carbon atoms are different from sodium, aluminum, or oxygen atoms.

  • They have different masses.

10 1 compounds and elements

10.1 Compounds and elements

  • Compounds are two or more different elements chemically bonded together.

10 1 examples of compounds

10.1 Examples of compounds

  • Compounds contain more than one type of atom chemically joined together.

10 1 molecules

10.1 Molecules

  • A molecule is a group of two or more atoms joined together chemically.

10 1 mixtures

10.1 Mixtures

  • Many substances you encounter are a mixtureof different elements and compounds.

How many atoms are in this mixture?

How many molecules are in this mixture?

10 1 elements compounds and mixtures

10.1 Elements, compounds, and mixtures

Can you distinguish between atoms and molecules in these images?

10 2 temperature

10.2 Temperature

  • There are two common temperature scales.

  • On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees.

  • The Celsius scale divides the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100 degrees.

10 2 what temperature really is

10.2 What temperature really is

  • Atoms are in constant motion, even in a solid object.

  • The back-and-forth jiggling of atoms is caused by thermal energy, which is a kind of kinetic energy.

10 2 what temperature really is1

10.2 What temperature really is

  • Temperature measures the kinetic energy per molecule due to random motion.

10 2 converting to kelvin

10.2 Converting to Kelvin

  • The Kelvin temperature scale is useful in science because it starts at absolute zero.

  • To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, you add 273 to the temperature in Celsius.

10 3 phases of matter

10.3 Phases of Matter

  • On Earth, pure substances are usually found as solids, liquids, or gases.

  • These are called phases of matter.

10 3 the phases of matter

10.3 The phases of matter

  • A solid holds its shape and does not flow.

  • The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don’t move far from their places.

10 3 the phases of matter1

10.3 The phases of matter

  • A liquid holds its volume, but does not hold its shape—it flows.

  • Liquids flow because the molecules can move around.

10 3 the phases of matter2

10.3 The phases of matter

  • A gas flows like a liquid, but can also expand or contract to fill a container.

  • A gas does not hold its volume.

  • The molecules in a gas have enough energy to completely break away from each other.

10 3 the phases of matter3

When they are close together, molecules are attracted through intermolecular forces.

10.3 The phases of matter

10 3 the phases of matter4

The forces in chemical bonds are stronger than intermolecular forces.

10.3 The phases of matter

10 3 intermolecular forces

10.3 Intermolecular forces

10 3 intermolecular forces1

10.3 Intermolecular forces

  • Within all matter, there is a constant competition between temperature and intermolecular forces.

  • When temperature wins the competition, molecules fly apart and you have a gas.

  • When intermolecular forces win the competition, molecules clump tightly together and you have a solid.

10 3 melting and boiling

10.3 Melting and boiling

  • The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

10 3 melting and boiling1

10.3 Melting and boiling

  • The temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas is called the boiling point.

Matter and temperature

Notice temperature is constant while ice melts!

10 3 melting and boiling points of common substances

10.3 Melting and boiling points ofcommon substances

  • Materials have a wide range of melting and boiling points.

10 3 sublimation

10.3 Sublimation

  • Sometimes a solid can change directly to a gas when heat energy is added.

  • This process is called sublimation.

10 3 plasma

10.3 Plasma

  • In the plasma phase, matter becomes ionized as electrons are broken loose from atoms.

  • The Sun is made of plasma, as is most of the universe, including the Orion nebula.

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