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Ancient Rome and Early Christianity. The Roman Republic Chapter 6 Section 1. Vocab. RepublicHannibal Patrician Plebian Tribune Consul Senate Dictator Legion Punic Wars. Origins of Rome. Legend of Rome: Founded in 753 B.C.E. by Romulus and Remus Twin sons of the god Mars

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Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

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Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

The Roman Republic

Chapter 6

Section 1


  • RepublicHannibal

  • Patrician

  • Plebian

  • Tribune

  • Consul

  • Senate

  • Dictator

  • Legion

  • Punic Wars

Origins of Rome

  • Legend of Rome:

    • Founded in 753 B.C.E. by Romulus and Remus

    • Twin sons of the god Mars

    • Abandoned at the Tiber River and raised by a she-wolf

Origins of Rome

  • The First Roman’s

    • First to arrive between 1000-500 B.C.E

    • 3 groups of people

      • Latin's- settled in Rome on Palatine Hill

      • Greek’s- establish colonies along southern Italy and Sicily

      • Etruscan’s- native born to Italy; skilled in metalwork and engineering; Roman’s will adopt their alphabet

Early Republic

  • Last King of Rome:

    • Tarquin the Proud- harsh king driven from power in 509 B.C.E.

    • Roman’s vowed they would never be ruled by a king again

    • Create republic; (res publica) citizens who have the right to vote for a leader

    • Citizen- only free white males

Early Republic




Plebeians: common farmers, artisans, merchants who make up the majority population

Had the right to vote but could not hold important public office

Tribunes- elected representatives of the plebeians to protect the rights of the plebeians from the patricians

  • Patricians:

    • Patricians: wealthy land owners

      • Inherited power and wealth; claim that status gives them authority to make laws for Rome

Early Republic

  • Twelve Tables:

    • Plebeians get a written law code

    • Now patricians cannot twist the laws to benefit themselves

    • 451 B.C.E. Rome’s laws are scribed on 12 tablets hung in the forum

Government under the Republic

  • “Balanced” Government:

    • Romans believed they had taken the best aspects of a monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy

Government under the Republic

  • Consuls:

    • (2) Like kings; rule for 1 yr, cannot be re-elected for another 10yrs.

    • Run the military and the government

    • One consul could always overrule or veto the other

Government under the Republic

  • Senate:

    • Aristocratic branch of the government

    • Held both legislative and administrative responsibilities

    • 300 members chosen from Rome’s elite

    • Influence in both foreign and domestic affairs

    • Tribal Assembly; made up of plebeians elected tribunes to create laws for the common man

Government under the Republic

  • Dictator:

    • Absolute power to make laws and command the army

    • In times of crisis the Romans would elect a dictator to protect Rome

    • Power only last for 6 months

    • Picked by the consuls and elected by the senate

Rome Spreads its Power

  • Roman Army

    • Placed great value on the military

    • All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the army

    • Certain political office required 10 yrs of service

    • Legion: 5,000 infantry (foot soldiers) supported by cavalry

      • Century- 80 men

Rome Spreads its Power

  • Rome Conquers Italy

    • 4th century B.C.E. dominate central Italy

    • Defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greek states in the south

    • 265 B.C.E. Rome controls Italy

    • The Latins were made full citizens of Rome

    • Most conquered people became citizens without the right to vote

    • Or became allies; Rome would not interfere with allies as long as they gave troops and didn’t make treaties with another state

Rome Spreads its Power

  • Rome’s Trading

    • Rome traded large amounts of goods with people throughout the Mediterranean Sea

    • Carthage, colony in North Africa begins to challenge Rome’s power……

Rome Spreads its Power

  • Punic Wars:

    • 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264- 146 B.C.E.

  • 1st Punic War:

    • Fought to control Sicily and the West Med. And Rome wins (1-0)

    • Lasts 23 yrs

Rome Spreads its Power

  • 2nd Punic War (218 B.C.E.):

    • Hannibal: Carthaginian general

    • 29 yrs old; brilliant military strategists

    • Wants to avenge Carthage defeat

    • 50,000 men, 9,000 cavalry and 60 elephants

    • Surprise attack; from Spain through France and down through the Alps

Rome Spreads its Power

  • Rome Triumphs:

    • General Scipio- Roman general that devised a plan to attack Carthage

      • Forcing Hannibal to leave his campaign in Italy

    • Battle of Zama 202 B.C.E.

      • Roman’s finally defeat Hannibal


Rome Spreads its Power

  • Third Punic War 149-146 B.C.E.

    • Rome lays seize to Carthage

    • Burn the city to the ground

    • 50,000 people sold into slavery

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