Science and technology from a business and economics perspective
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Science and technology from a business and economics perspective PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Science and technology from a business and economics perspective . Lecture 1 2007-10-22 Emelie Stenborg. Teaching week 1. Monday 10-12: Creative destruction and industrial innovation Schumpeter + Fagerberg (125-135, 141 f) Utterback (4, 2, 7, 10) Wednesday 10-12: Innovation in firms

Download Presentation

Science and technology from a business and economics perspective

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Science and technology from a business and economics perspective

Science and technology from a business and economics perspective

Lecture 1

2007-10-22

Emelie Stenborg


Teaching week 1

Teaching week 1

  • Monday 10-12: Creative destruction and industrial innovation

    Schumpeter + Fagerberg (125-135, 141 f)

    Utterback (4, 2, 7, 10)

  • Wednesday 10-12: Innovation in firms

    Tidd et al (1, 2, 12)

  • Friday 10-12: Seminar with presentations


Information

Information

Week 1 – Emelie Stenborg

Week 2 – Astrid Szogs

Week 3 – Lars Coenen

Week 4 – Home exam


The plan is then

The plan is then

  • To start with the greatest influencer in evolutionary economics and see how he is relevant today

  • Explain industrial dynamics in industries

  • See how firms can manage innovation

     Hopefully we will be able to see both why innovation is important and how it can be managed in firms!


Schumpeter creative destruction

Schumpeter – Creative destruction


Schumpeter

Schumpeter

  • First half of the 20th century

  • Ideas resurfaced in the 1980s

  • Influenced evolutionary economics and capitalist dynamics

  • Was early in objecting to classical models (influenced by Marx)

  • Still important as the ”holistic” view still today often is not used


Schumpeter s opinions 1

Schumpeter’s opinions (1)

  • Argues against ideas of ”perfect competition”

  • Even under mono- or oligopolistic competition great advances are made

  • Effects the standard of life for people

  • Includes quality and marketing in the competitive advantage of firms


Schumpeter s opinions 2

Schumpeter’s opinions (2)

  • Also wants to move on from equillibrium models

  • Sees them as nice ideal models

  • Equillibrium would be destroyed by innovation

  • New products, processes, organizations, markets poses the greatest threat

  • Innovation only gives an initial advantage


Schumpeter s opinions 3

Schumpeter’s opinions (3)

  • Defies the static view of economics

  • Firms are shaped by the past and by the future

  • Have to see the context to understand the firm

  • Firms are organic in their structure

  • Uncertainty is a genuine concern – constrains innovation


Schumpeter s opinions 4

Schumpeter’s opinions (4)

  • New way of looking at how innovation is produced

    New combinations of existing things – not only technological

    The role of institutions

    Has to do with the non-technological issues

    From new entrants

    The role/characteristics of the entrepreneur


Creative destruction

Creative destruction

  • Replacive new technology – creating a new industry, destroying an old

  • Creates new proffesions

  • Big firms are innovative but under constant threat by young firms

  • Comes as business cycles

  • Is a societal reality and concern

  • Key factor; cheap, universally available input, rapidly falling cost, used in many sectors  pervasive!


Now some discussions

Now, some discussions!

Two and two, give example of creative destruction and (if you know) what happened to the old players and how has the industry changed?


About organizational innovation

About organizational innovation

Discuss fordism and post-fordism in terms of

  • efficiency

  • culture

  • how to make it work


Utterback mastering the dynamics of innovation

Utterback – Mastering the dynamics of innovation

Chapter 4, 2, 7, 10


This model tries to

This model tries to…

  • Link innovation, market and industry

  • The level of product and process innovation can be related to the stage of the industry

  • Handels both incremental and radical innovation

  • Explanatory, general model

  • Academically very influental (together with Abernathy)


Innovation and industrial evolution

Innovation and Industrial Evolution

  • Assembled products

  • Not universal

  • Links the following to the industry life cycle

    • Product innovation

    • Process innovation

    • Organizational change

    • Market

    • Competition


Innovation in an assembly sector

Innovation in an assembly sector

http://www.zanthus.com/databank/innovation/docs/abernathy_utterback.ppt


Keywords of different phases

Keywords of different phases


What happens after the specific phase

What happens after the specific phase?

  • New vawes of innovation

    • Next generation

    • Skip a generation

  • Organisational innovation

    • Japanese style

    • Corporate ventures

    • Networking organisation

    • Mass customization


Dominant design

Dominant design

  • The design that wins the competition…

  • Not based on technological superiority but instead on a mixture of market and organizational factors

  • Creates

    • What defines the product

    • What is required by the product

    • Meets the need of most customers

    • New proffesions


How does it come about

How does it come about?

  • Interplay between market and technology

  • Important non-technological factors

    • Collateral (Complementary) assets

    • Policy

    • Firm strategy

    • Communication


Effects of dominant design

Effects of dominant design

  • Competition

    • Shifts the basis from product to process

    • Less and less firms

    • Slower introduction of change (maybe less true these days…)

  • Implication  Organisational change is necessary!


Organizational implications

Organizational implications

  • Leadership or followership

  • Sets the boundaries for change (I thought about plastic waterbottles the other day…)

    • Constraints, users, habits, complementary assets…

  • Can we spot it? At least three variables

    • Chance

    • Technology

    • Social process

  • Disruptive change comes from outside of the industry (More on Wednesday)


Radical innovation

Radical innovation

  • In industries times of stability are disrupted by times of discontinuity

  • Example of generations of the ice industry in the USA – manually harvested  mechanical ice-making  refrigerators

  • In this context we talk about replacive products


Performance of old and new technology

Performance of old and new technology

Product performance

t1

t2

t3

Time

Utterback, Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation


Dynamics of radical innovation

Dynamics of radical innovation

  • First inferior to old ones – but with potential

  • Early, demanding users – but has to have mass market potential

  • Timing – decline of improvements of old technology, rapid improvement of new

  • ”Sailing ship” – old technology fights back


Old vs new firms

Old vs New firms

  • Existing customers

  • Existing products

  • Resources (investments)

  • Other stakeholders (shares, staff, funders…)

  • Existing organisational structure

  • Bureaucracy

  • Mindset – emotionally comitted

  • More?


So how to be an innovative firm according to utterback 1

So, how to be an innovative firm?(According to Utterback) (1)

  • Technology, markets and organisation

    1) Support radical developments

    • Wide experimentation

    • Learning organisation

    • External vision

    • Developed and balanced core competences

    • Strategies

    • Alliances

    • Accept change – it will happen!


So how to be an innovative firm according to utterback 2

So, how to be an innovative firm?(According to Utterback) (2)

2)The importance of incremental innovation!

  • Improve and extend existing lines

  • Parallell innovation

  • Right structure

  • Develop complementary assets


Summary

Summary

  • Utterback

    • Innovation, market and industry

    • Industry life cycle

    • Fluid, transitional and specific phases

    • Dominant design

    • Radical innovation

  • Schumpeter

    • ”Imperfect competition”

    • Innovation is the driver of the economy

    • Dynamic economics

    • Innovation and non-technological aspects

    • Creatve destruction


Wednesday

Wednesday

  • We will continue with how firm’s have to relate themselves to the management of innovation to stay in the business.


Seminar assignment

Seminar assignment

Work in groups of 2 to 3 people. Choose a firm (possibly a technology of a firm) and relate it to concepts introduced today and on Wednesday:

  • Creative destruction

  • Industrial dynamics

  • Management of innovation

    Presentation (10-15 minutes) on Friday!


  • Login