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Chapter 19 Protists. Section 1: Introduction to Protists. Section 2: Protozoans—Animal-like Protists. Section 3: Algae—Plantlike Protists. Section 4: Funguslike Protists. Protists. Chapter 19. 19.1 Introduction to Protists. Protists. All protists are eukaryotes.

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Chapter 19 Protists

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Chapter 19 Protists

Section 1: Introduction to Protists

Section2: Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Section 3: Algae—Plantlike Protists

Section 4: Funguslike Protists


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Protists

  • All protists are eukaryotes.

  • Unicellular or Multicellular

  • Autotrophs or heterotrophs

  • Some reproduce asexually by mitosis while others exchange genetic material during meiosis.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Classifying Protists

  • Some scientists classify protists by their methods of obtaining nutrition.

  • Animal-like protists (PROTOZOANS)

    • Classified based on method of movement

  • Plantlike protists (ALGAE)

    • Classified based on color pigment

  • Funguslike protists

    • Classified based on method of reproduction


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Animal-like Protists

  • Protozoans are heterotrophs and usually ingest bacteria, algae, or other protozoans.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Phylum Ciliophora

  • Biologists further classify protozoans by their method of movement.

  • Members of the phylum Ciliophora are animal-like protists that have numerous short, hairlike projections called cilia.

  • There are over 7000 species of ciliates.

  • Most notable example is Paramecium


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Paramecia

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  • A unicellular protozoan

  • Enclosed by a layer of membrane called a pellicle.

Paramecia


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Cilia

  • Cilia on the paramecium are used for moving and feeding.

Contractile Vacuoles

  • The contractile vacuoles collect the excess water from the cytoplasm and expel it from the cell.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Sarcodina (Phylum Rhizopoda)

  • Animal-like protists that use pseudopods (false foot) for feeding and locomotion

  • The most commonly studied sarcodines are found in the genus Amoeba.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

  • Chemical stimuli from smaller organisms can cause the amoeba to form pseudopods from their plasma membrane.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

  • Amoebas are enveloped in an outer cell membrane and an inner thickened cytoplasm called ectoplasm.

  • The cytoplasm contains a nucleus, food vacuoles, and occasionally a contractile vacuole.

  • Waste products and undigested food particles are excreted by diffusion through the outer membranes into surrounding water.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

  • Amoebas reproduce by asexual reproduction.

  • During harsh environmental conditions, some amoebas become cysts that help them survive until environmental conditions improve and survival is more likely.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Apicomplexa (Phylum Sporozoa)

  • Animal-like protists that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa also are known as sporozoans.

  • All sporozoans are parasitic.

  • No obvious method of movement: “Floaters”


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

  • The life cycle of sporozoans has both sexual and asexual stages.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists

Phylum Zoomastigina

  • Animal-like protozoans that use flagella for movement

  • At least three species of zooflagellates from the genus Trypanosoma cause infectious diseases in humans that often are fatal because of limited treatment options.

  • Chagas disease, sometimes called American sleeping sickness

  • African sleeping sickness

  • Another example: Plasmodium (causes malaria)


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Plantlike Protists

  • Plantlike protists make their own food through photosynthesis.

  • Algae


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Characteristics of Algae

  • Contain photosynthetic pigments

  • Primary pigment is chlorophyll

  • Secondary pigments allow them to absorb light energy in deep water


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Red algae

Green algae


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

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Diatoms

  • The unicellular algae are members of the phylum Bacillariophyta.

  • Diatoms are photosynthetic autotrophs.

Diatoms


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

  • Asexual reproduction occurs when the two separated halves each create a new half that can fit inside the old one.

  • When a diatom is about one-quarter of the original size, sexual reproduction is triggered and gametes are produced.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Dinoflagellates

  • Unicellular and have two flagella at right angles to one another

  • Some dinoflagellates are photosynthetic autotrophs, and other species are heterotrophs.

  • The heterotrophic dinoflagellates can be carnivorous, parasitic, or mutualistic.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Algal Blooms

  • When food is plentiful and environmental conditions are favorable, dinoflagellates reproduce in great numbers.

  • When the food supply diminishes, the dinoflagellates die in large numbers.

  • As the dead algae decompose, the oxygen supply in the water is depleted, suffocating fish and other marine organisms.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Red Tides

  • Some dinoflagellates have red photosynthetic pigments, and when they bloom, the ocean is tinged red.

  • Some species of dinoflagellates produce a potentially lethal nerve toxin.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Euglenoids

  • Euglenoids contain chloroplasts and photosynthesize.

  • Euglenoids also can be heterotrophs.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Green Algae

  • Like plants, green algae contain chlorophyll as a primary photosynthetic pigment.

  • Like plants, green algae have cell walls, and both groups store their food as carbohydrates.

  • Most species of green algae are found in freshwater.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists

Growth Patterns Exhibited by Green Algae

  • Desmids are characterized by their symmetrically divided cells.

  • Spirogyra is a multicellular species characterized by its long, thin filaments.

  • Volvox is an example of an alga that has a colonial growth pattern.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Funguslike Protists

  • Funguslike protists absorb their nutrients from other organisms.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.4 Funguslike Protists

Slime Molds

  • Slime molds use spores to reproduce.

  • Feed on decaying organic matter and absorb nutrients through their cell walls.

  • The cell walls of these protists contain cellulose or celluloselike compounds.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.4 Funguslike Protists

Acellular Slime Molds

  • Acellular slime molds are found in the phylum Myxomycota.


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Protists

Chapter 19

19.4 Funguslike Protists

Cellular Slime Molds

  • Cellular slime molds are found in the phylum Acrasiomycota.

  • Reproduce both sexually and asexually


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Protists

Chapter 19

Chapter Resource Menu

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Formative Test Questions

Chapter Assessment Questions

Standardized Test Practice

biologygmh.com

Glencoe Biology Transparencies

Image Bank

Vocabulary

Animation

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

CDQ 1

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

How are funguslike protists different from

fungi?

perform photosynthesis

ingest bacteria

microscopic in size

contain centrioles


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

CDQ 2

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which type of protist carries out

photosynthesis and has chloroplasts?

bacteria

algae

mold

fungus


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

CDQ 3

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which is not a characteristic of protists?

unicellular

multicellular

might have formed through endosymbiosis

prokaryotic


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A

B

Protists

Chapter 19

FQ 1

19.1 Formative Questions

What type of cells do protists have?

eukaryotic cells

prokaryotic cells


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

FQ 2

19.1 Formative Questions

How are protists classified?

by their internal cell structure

by their methods of reproduction

by the way they obtain nutrition

by the type of cell membranes they have


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

FQ 3

19.1 Formative Questions

Why are protozoans classified as animal-like protists?

They absorb nutrients.

They are heterotrophs.

They carry out photosynthesis.

They have either cilia or flagella.


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

FQ 5

19.2 Formative Questions

What is the outermost layer of membrane

in a paramecium?

cellulose

ectoplasm

pellicle

plasma membrane


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

FQ 7

19.2 Formative Questions

What do amoebas use for feeding and

locomotion?

cilia

ectoplasm

flagella

pseudopods


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

FQ 8

19.2 Formative Questions

How do amoebas excrete waste products

and undigested food particles?

by diffusion

by exocytosis

through an anal pore

through waste vacuoles


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

CAQ 3

Chapter Assessment Questions

Which number represents an organelle that captures energy for the cell from sunlight?

1

2

3

4


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

STP 3

Standardized Test Practice

What can you determine about a protist

that has contractile vacuoles?

It ingests food particles.

It is capable of locomotion.

It excretes digested wastes.

It lives in fresh water.


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

STP 4

Standardized Test Practice

Why is this process not considered sexual reproduction?

It only involves micronuclei.

No new organisms are formed.

DNA is not transferred between cells.

It occurs between single-celled organisms.


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

STP 8

Standardized Test Practice

At certain times of the year along ocean

shorelines, the waves appear to glow at

night. What organisms likely cause this?

chrysophytes

diatoms

dinoflagellates

luminoids


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A

B

C

D

Protists

Chapter 19

STP 9

Standardized Test Practice

Why are euglenoids challenging to classify?

They have both flagella and eyespots.

They are both photosynthetic and heterotrophic.

They have mitochondria but no cell wall.

Some absorb nutrients, others ingest organisms.


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Protists

Chapter 19

Vocabulary

Section 1

protozoan


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Protists

Chapter 19

Vocabulary

Section 2

pellicle

contractile vacuole

pseudopod


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