The election of 1912
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The Election of 1912. Simplifying this Complex Event. Questions Facing America in 1912. Should America be a capitalist or socialist society? Should government protect the social welfare of citizens? Should women vote, and participate as full citizens in the life of the nation?

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The Election of 1912

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The election of 1912

The Election of 1912

Simplifying this Complex Event


Questions facing america in 1912

Questions Facing America in 1912

Should America be a capitalist or socialist society?

Should government protect the social welfare of citizens?

Should women vote, and participate as full citizens in the life of the nation?

Should Americans expand their democracy in other ways?

Should government exercise more control over businesses?

Should government try to solve the conflict between "capital" and "labor?"

Should the government work vigorously for the conservation of natural resources?


The issues

Election of 1912

The Issues


Big issues

BIG Issues

The Usual Suspects

The Usually Left Out

Immigration

Judicial Reform

Safety of the Food and Medicine Supply

Lynching

Cost of Living

Prohibition

  • Direct Democracy

  • The Labor Question

  • Womens’ Suffrage

  • The Race Problem

  • The Tariff

  • Trusts

  • Regulation of Business

  • Conservation


Categories

Categories


Categories1

Categories

  • Direct Democracy

  • Women Suffrage

  • Judicial Reform

  • Trusts

  • Regulation of Business

  • The Tariff

  • Cost of Living

  • Prohibition

  • Lynching

  • Immigration

  • Race Problem

  • Food and Medicine


The electorate

The Electorate


Direct democracy

Direct Democracy


Suffrage

Suffrage


Judicial reform

Judicial Reform


The economy

The Economy


Cost of living

Cost of Living

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The Cost of Living


The candidates

Election of 1912

The Candidates


The big four

The Big Four

Theodore Roosevelt (P)

Woodrow Wilson (D)

William Taft (R)

Eugene Debs (S)


Wilson

Wilson

  • Early life

  • Education

  • PhD Thesis

  • Career prior to politics

  • Governor of New Jersey

  • Personality


Theodore roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt

  • Background

  • Physical culture

  • Personality

  • Pedigree as 26th President of the United States

  • Republican or Progressive?


William taft

William Taft

  • Background as judge and governor of the Philippines

  • Friendship with TR

  • Taft as Sec of War

  • Incumbent President

  • Increasing friction with TR


Eugene debs

Eugene Debs

  • Background as Union organizer

  • Role in railroad strikes

  • Prosecution and jail

  • Evolution to socialism

  • Adherence to American socialism rather than European socialism


The platforms

Election of 1912

The Platforms


Republicans

Republicans

  • High import tariffs.

  • Put limitations on female and child labor.

  • Workman’s Compensation Laws.

  • Against initiative, referendum, and recall.

  • Against “bad” trusts.

  • Creation of a Federal Trade Commission.

  • Stay on the gold standard.

  • Conservation of natural resources because they are finite.


Democrats

Democrats

  • Government control of the monopolies

    • trusts in general were bad

    • eliminate them!!

  • Tariff reduction.

  • One-term President.

  • Direct election of Senators.

  • Create a Department of Labor.

  • Strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

  • Did NOT support women’s suffrage.

  • Opposed to a central bank.

New Freedom


Progressives

Progressives

  • Women’s suffrage.

  • Graduated income tax.

  • Inheritance tax for the rich.

  • Lower tariffs.

  • Limits on campaign spending.

  • Currency reform.

  • Minimum wage laws.

  • Social insurance.

  • Abolition of child labor.

  • Workmen’s compensation.

New Nationalism


Socialists

Socialists

  • Government ownership of railroads and utilities.

  • Guaranteed income tax.

  • No tariffs.

  • 8-hour work day.

  • Better housing.

  • Government inspection of factories.

  • Women’s suffrage.


The election results

Election of 1912

The Election & Results


The republican nomination

The Republican Nomination

  • Return of TR

  • Failure of Republicans to nominate him

    • Too radical

    • Too reform minded

    • Not controlable

  • Republicans split into two separate parties


The real battle wilson v t r

The Real Battle: Wilson v T.R.


Copy of ballot

Copy of Ballot


1912 election

1912 Election

Wilson becomes a minority President


Results of the election

Results of the Election

Wilson

Roosevelt

Taft

  • Wins but is a minority President

  • Is wholly unsuited to the job

  • In the end the Progressive Party died out

  • TR left the party, refusing to split the Republicans in 1914

  • Left the White House

  • Republicans lost the Pres and Congress for first time in 16 years

  • Goes on to serve on the Supreme Court


Debs and the socialists

Debs and the Socialists

  • 1912 was the high-point for the Socialists at the ballot box

    • 6% of the popular vote

  • Membership falls off, then rebounds slightly during WWI

  • Debs doesn’t run in 1916, but does in 1920 – from a jail cell

  • The Bloshevik revolutions and accordant fear of Bolshevism in America virtually destroyed the party in the 1920’s


Special thanks

Special Thanks

  • Ohio State University, Department of History, ehistory, Multimedia Histories Section, “1912: Competing Visions for America”.

  • Radosh, Ronald, Debs (Englewood Cliffs, N.J..: Prentice Hall, 1971)

  • Shannon, David, The Socialist Party of America: A History (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1967)

  • Peterson, A. The Election of 1912 (Lakeside, CA: Interaction Publishers, 1992)

  • HarpWeek/Elections. “Election of 1912.” http://www.elections.harpweek.com/


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