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Achieving a Mobility Revolution in Asia through Non-Motorised Transport. John Whitelegg Stockholm Environment Institute United Kingdom. The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).

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achieving a mobility revolution in asia through non motorised transport

Achieving a Mobility Revolution in Asia through Non-Motorised Transport

John Whitelegg

Stockholm Environment Institute

United Kingdom

[email protected]


The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

SEI is an independent, international research institute specializing in sustainable development and environment issues. The SEI mission developed from the insights gained at the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm (after which the Institute derives its name), the work of the (Brundtland) World Commission for Environment and Development and the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development.


SEI’s mission is to support decision-making and induce change towards sustainable development around the world by providing integrative knowledge that bridges science and policy in the field of environment and development.

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The Impact of the Problem

Premature Deaths

Source: WHO, 2002

“Air pollution puts the lives of Millions at risk in Asian cities”

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upi heidelberg germany
UPI Heidelberg (Germany)
  • Published in 1995
  • Global population of vehicles will be 2.3 billion in 2030
  • Fuel demand will increase from 650 mt to 1.3 billion tonne
  • CO2 equivalent emissions will increase from 4.4 billion tonnes to 10 billion tonnes

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upi cont
UPI (cont)
  • Road deaths will increase from 0.5 million to 2.5 million by 2030 and most deaths will be in poorer countries
  • Injuries will increase from 9 million to 60 million by 2030
  • Permanently handicapped will increase from 0.8 million to 5.7 million by 2030

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  • Air Pollution
  • Premature death
  • Health care costs
  • Social inequity (the poor are killed by the rich)
  • Loss of land

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land take for future transport
Land Take for Future Transport
  • The land requirement for new roads and car parking will rise from 50,000 sq kms to 200,000 sq kms by 2030
  • This land take (in 2030) is enough to feed 80 million people
  • The last crop that will be grown on this land is tarmac and concrete

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huge social costs
Huge Social Costs
  • Streets become traffic sewers
  • Communities are destroyed
  • The elderly suffer
  • Children are killed and seriously injured
  • Social polarisation (do we want to live in this kind of world?)

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deaths and injuries who 2004
Deaths and Injuries (WHO 2004)
  • 1.2 million people are killed in road crashes each year
  • 50 million are injured
  • 3000 people die every day
  • 85% of the deaths are from low and middle income countries
  • By 2020 RTI will be 3rd leading cause of disease and injury

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Western Europe

16.8 million

U.S. Department of Energy\'s Office of TransportationTechnologies

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Fatter and Less Fit

Decades of uncontrolled suburban sprawl conceived around the motor car have left them unable to walk even if they wish to.

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tia versus tina
TIA versus TINA
  • Non-motorised transport
  • Land use planning
  • Fiscal re-balancing
  • Demand management
  • Highway space reallocation

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There has to be political will!

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non motorised transport
Non-Motorised Transport
  • Walking (including walking to bus stops and train stations)
  • Cycling
  • Rickshaws

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best practice in nmt
Best Practice in NMT
  • Bike lanes and pedestrian facilities in Bogota
  • Taj Mahal cycle taxi improvement project (ITDP)
  • Kolkata integrated transport plan (Eco-Logica)
  • Bicycle Master Plan for Delhi (TRIPP)

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drawing the road map to nmt
Drawing the Road Map to NMT
  • Citizen participation, media attention and political prioritisation (and include women, children and the elderly)
  • Budget reallocation
  • Pilot projects in all major Asian cities
  • Evaluation
  • Redefinition of measures and targets

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the nmt tool kit
The NMT Tool Kit
  • Identify and build safe, secure, direct well managed, shaded and well drained bike and pedestrian paths
  • Connect the places that people want to visit/travel to
  • All bus/train/BRT thinking to be linked to pedestrian and cycle access

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  • Need to have a vision
  • Must be geographically relevant and sensitive (what “goes” in Delhi might not work in Kolkata or Manila or Beijing)
  • Must be based on citizen involvement

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delhi tripp
Delhi (TRIPP)

Geetam Tiwari

Planning for bicycles and other non motorised modes

Transportation Research and Injury Prevention programme, IIT, Delhi

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link to sustainability strategies
Link to Sustainability Strategies
  • Greenhouse gas reduction
  • Air quality improvement
  • Better health though better air quality and physical exercise
  • Sustainable cities( accessibility rich and socially just)

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Increase in Air Pollution for Kolkata if rickshaws are banned


Daily Annual

Optimistic CO 177.1 64,641

HC 21.9 7,993

NOx 10.3 3,760

Pessimistic CO 207.3 75,664

HC 25.3 9,235

NOx 8.0 2,920

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  • Leadership
  • Constant messages
  • Intelligent travel
  • Citizen panels/citizen juries
  • Quality control

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rich country responsibilities
Rich Country Responsibilities
  • To do the same with vigour and conviction (traffic reduction, NMT and sustainable cities)
  • To adopt Vision Zero (Swedish road safety strategy)
  • To question the role of European car manufactures in Asia
  • To adopt ethical consultancy and project finance guidelines

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