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Chapter 13. HEART. FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. Heart pumps and circulates blood to all parts of the body Blood vessels circulate blood between heart and cells Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries away wastes

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functions of the circulatory system
FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • Heart pumps and circulates blood to all parts of the body
  • Blood vessels circulate blood between heart and cells
  • Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries away wastes
  • Lymph system returns excess fluids from tissues and makes lymphocytes

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

organs of the circulatory system
ORGANS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • Heart
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries
  • Blood
  • Lymphatic system

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

major blood circuits
MAJOR BLOOD CIRCUITS
  • Blood leaves the heart through arteries and returns to the heart from veins
  • The general (systemic) circulation carries blood throughout the body
  • Cardiopulmonary circulation carries blood from the heart to lungs and back

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

the heart
THE HEART
  • The heart is the main organ responsible for circulating the blood throughout the body efficiently

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

the heart6
THE HEART

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • The heart is a hollow, muscular, double pump
    • Pericardium - double layer of fibrous tissues surrounding heart
    • Myocardium - cardiac muscle tissue
    • Endocardium - Smooth inner lining
    • Septum - Muscular wall separating heart into two halves

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart8
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • Structures leading to and from the heart:
    • Vena cava
      • superior and inferior
    • Coronary sinus
    • Pulmonary artery
    • Pulmonary veins
    • Aorta

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart9
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • Four chambers of the heart
    • Right atrium
    • Left atrium
    • Right ventricle
    • Left ventricle

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart10
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • Four valves permit blood flow in only one direction
    • Tricuspid valve
    • Bicuspid (mitral) valve
    • Pulmonary semilunar valve
    • Aortic semilunar valve

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart11
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • Two major functions occur with each heart beat
    • Right heart: Blood is taken to the lungs for oxygen
    • Left heart: Blood is taken from lungs to be circulated throughout body
  • The heart receives its blood supply from the coronary artery

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart12
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • Stroke volume:
    • Number of heart beats per minute
    • The heart at rest beats between 72 and 80 times per minute
  • Cardiac output:
    • The amount of blood ejected from heart per minute
    • Between 60 and 80 ml of blood on average

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

structure of the heart13
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • Lubb dupp sounds - Sounds made by the valves during the cardiac cycle
    • Lubb - sound made when the tricuspid and bicuspid valves close between the atria and ventricles
    • Dupp - Caused by semilunar valves in the aorta and the pulmonary artery closing

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

control of heart contractions
CONTROL OF HEART CONTRACTIONS
  • Pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
    • Conducting cells found at the opening of the superior vena cava that control heart muscle contractions
    • Sends out electrical impulses that begin and regulate the heart
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
    • Records electrical activity of heart

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

diagnostic tests for heart and circulatory function
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR HEART AND CIRCULATORY FUNCTION
  • Cardiac catheterization is the insertion of a catheter into the femoral artery or vein
    • Dye is inserted and pictures are taken as fluid moves through the heart
  • Stress tests determine how physiological stress and exercise affect the heart

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

diseases of the heart
DISEASES OF THE HEART
  • Common symptoms of heart disease
    • Arrhythmia
    • Bradycardia
    • Tachycardia
    • Murmurs
    • Mitral valve prolapse

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

diseases of the heart17
DISEASES OF THE HEART
  • Coronary Artery disease (CAD)
    • Narrowing of the arteries that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart
    • Angina pectoris - severe chest pain from inadequate oxygen to heart
    • Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - caused by lack of blood supply to heart

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

diseases of the heart18
DISEASES OF THE HEART
  • Infectious diseases of the heart
    • Pericarditis
    • Myocarditis
    • Endocarditis
    • Rheumatic heart disease

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

diseases of the heart19
DISEASES OF THE HEART
  • Prevention of heart disease
    • Not smoking
    • Regular exercise
    • Maintaining ideal weight
    • Estrogen replacement therapy
    • Reduction of triglyceride and cholesterol levels
    • Maintaining normal blood pressure

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

diseases of the heart20
DISEASES OF THE HEART
  • Congestive heart failure is similar to heart failure but includes edema in lower extremities
  • Rhythm/Conduction defects
    • Heart block
    • Premature contractions
    • Fibrillation

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

types of heart surgery
TYPES OF HEART SURGERY
  • Angioplasty (balloon surgery)
  • Coronary bypass
  • Cardiac stints
  • Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR)

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

heart transplants
HEART TRANSPLANTS
  • Heart transplant is needed when individual’s heart can no longer function properly
  • Organ rejection may occur even when tissue type is matched
  • Immunosuppressants are drugs used to suppress recipient’s immune system from rejecting donor organ

© 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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