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CHAPTER 12 LEADERSHIP IMPLICATIONS FOR STRATEGY. THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS. KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES. INTRODUCTION . ● E ffective strategic leadership is the foundation for successfully using the strategic management process.

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CHAPTER 12 LEADERSHIP IMPLICATIONS FOR STRATEGY

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Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

CHAPTER 12LEADERSHIP IMPLICATIONS FOR STRATEGY


The strategic management process

THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

INTRODUCTION

●Effective strategic leadership is the foundation for successfully using the strategic management process.

●Strategic leaders guide the firm in ways that result in forming a vision and mission.

● This guidance often finds leaders thinking of ways to create goals that stretch everyone in the organization to improve performance.

●Moreover, strategic leaders facilitate the development of appropriate strategic actions and determine how to implement them.

●Leaders can make a major difference in how a firm performs.


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND STYLE

Strategic leadership: the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, and empower others to create strategic change as necessary

  • Multifunctional task

    • Managing through others

    • Managing an entire enterprise rather than a functional subunit

    • Coping with change that is increasing in the global economy

    • Most critical skill: attracting and managing human (includes intellectual) capital

      NOTE: Many examples of well-known CEOs are mentioned throughout the chapter to illustrate their leadership styles.


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND STYLE


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND STYLE

  • EFFECTIVE STRATEGIC LEADERS

    • Build strong ties with external stakeholders to gain access to information and advice

    • Understand how their decisions impact their firm

    • Sustain above-average performance

    • Attract and manage human capital

    • Do not delegate decision-making responsibilities

    • Inspire and enable others to do excellent work and realize their potential

    • Promote and nurture innovation through transformational leadership


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

FACTORS AFFECTING MANAGERIAL DISCRETION


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM, FIRM PERFORMANCE, AND STRATEGIC CHANGE

  • Heterogeneous team:individuals with varied functional backgrounds, experiences, and education

  • Team members: bring a variety of strengths, capabilities, and knowledge and provide effective strategic leadership when faced with complex environments and multiple stakeholder relationships to manage


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

MANAGERIAL SUCCESSION

  • DEFINITION: preselect and shape the skills oftomorrow’s leaders

    • Internal managerial labormarket:opportunities for managerial positions to be filled from within the firm

    • External managerial labor market:opportunities for managerial positions to be filled by candidates from outside of the firm

  • This decision impacts company performance and the ability to embrace change in today's competitive landscape

  • Succession, top management team composition, and strategy are intimately related


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

EFFECTS OF CEO SUCCESSION AND TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM COMPOSITION ON STRATEGY


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

MANAGERIAL SUCCESSION

Benefits of Internal Managerial Labor Market

  • Continuity

  • Continued commitment

  • Familiarity

  • Reduced turnover

  • Retention of “private knowledge”

  • Favored when the firm is performing well


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

MANAGERIAL SUCCESSION

Benefits of External Managerial Labor Market

  • Long tenure with the same firm is thought to reduce innovation

  • Outsiders bring diverse knowledge bases and social networks, which offer the potential for synergy and new competitive advantages

  • Fresh paradigms

  • Note: Opportunity cost for firms: Women as strategic leaders have been somewhat overlooked


Exercise of effective strategic leadership

EXERCISE OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND-SET: FIVE DIMENSIONS

AUTONOMY

  • Employees are allowed to take actions that are free of organizational constraints; permits individuals and groups to be self-directed


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND-SET: FIVE DIMENSIONS

AUTONOMY

INNOVATIVENESS

  • Reflects a firm’s tendency to engage in and support new ideas, novelty, experimentation, and creative processes that may result in new products, services, or technological processes

  • Cultures with a tendency toward innovativeness encourage employees to think beyond existing knowledge, technologies, and parameters to find creative ways to add value


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND-SET: FIVE DIMENSIONS

AUTONOMY

INNOVATIVENESS

RISK TAKING

  • Reflects a willingness by employees and their firm to accept risks when pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities

  • Examples of RISKS

    • Assuming significant levels of debt

    • Allocating large amounts of resources to projects that may not be completed


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND-SET: FIVE DIMENSIONS

AUTONOMY

INNOVATIVENESS

PROACTIVENESS

RISK TAKING

  • Ability to be a market leader rather than a follower

  • Proactive organizational cultures constantly use processes to anticipate future market needs and to satisfy them before competitors learn how to do so


Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND-SET: FIVE DIMENSIONS

AUTONOMY

INNOVATIVENESS

PROACTIVENESS

RISK TAKING

COMPETITIVE

AGGRESSIVENESS

  • Propensity to take actions that allow the firm to consistently and substantially outperform its rivals.


Key strategic leadership actions

KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS

  • Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

    Controls: formal, information-based procedures used by managers to maintain or alter patterns in organizational activities

  • Controls help strategic leaders:

    • ● Build credibility

    • ● Demonstrate the value of strategies to the firm’s stakeholders

    • ● Promote and support strategic change


  • Key strategic leadership actions1

    KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS

    • Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

    • ●Financial Controls

      • Focus on short-term financial outcomes

      • Produce risk-averse managerial decisionsbecause financial outcomes may be caused by events beyond managers’ direct control

    • ●Strategic Controls

      • Focus on the content of strategic actions rather than their outcomes

      • Encourage decisions that incorporate moderate and acceptable levels of risk


    Key strategic leadership actions2

    KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS

    • Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

    • THE BALANCED SCORECARD

      • Framework to evaluate if firms have achieved the appropriate balance among the strategic and financial controls to attain the desired level of firm performance

      • Most appropriate for evaluating business-level strategies; it can also be used with the other strategies firms implement (e.g., corporate-level, international, and cooperative)

      • Prevents overemphasis of financial controlsat the expense of strategic controls


    Key strategic leadership actions3

    KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS

    • Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

    • THE BALANCED SCORECARD

      • ● Premise is that firms jeopardize their future performance when financial controls are emphasized at the expense of strategic controls

      • ● This is because financial controls focus on historical outcomes, and do not address future performance drivers

      • ● An overemphasis on financial controls may promote managerial behavior that sacrifices long-term, value-creating potential for short-term performance gains

      • ● An appropriate balance of strategic controls and financial controls, rather than an overemphasis on either, allows firms to achieve higher levels of performance


    Key strategic leadership actions4

    KEY STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ACTIONS

    • Establishing Balanced Organizational Controls

    • THE BALANCED SCORECARD

    • Four perspectives of the balanced scorecard

      • Financial

      •  Customer

      • Internal Business Processes

      • Learning and Growth


    Strategic controls and financial controls in a balanced scorecard framework

    STRATEGIC CONTROLS AND FINANCIAL CONTROLS IN A BALANCED SCORECARD FRAMEWORK

    Strategic Controls and Financial Controls in a Balanced Scorecard Framework


    Translating vision and strategy four perspectives

    Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives

    FINANCIAL

    “To succeed financially, how should we appear to our shareholders?”

    Measures

    Targets

    Initiatives

    Objectives

    CUSTOMER

    INTERNAL BUSINESS PROCESS

    “To achieve our vision, how should we appear to our customers?”

    “To satisfy our shareholders and customers, what business processes must we excel at?”

    Measures

    Targets

    Initiatives

    Measures

    Targets

    Initiatives

    Objectives

    Objectives

    Vision and

    Strategy

    LEARNING AND GROWTH

    “To achieve our vision, how will we sustain our ability to change and improve?”

    Measures

    Targets

    Initiatives

    Objectives


    The balanced scorecard focuses on factors that create long term value

    The Balanced Scorecard Focuses on Factors that Create Long-Term Value

    Customers

    Processes

    People

    • Traditional financial reports look backward

      • Reflect only the past: spending incurred and revenues earned

      • Do not measure creation or destruction of future economic value

    • The Balanced Scorecard identifies the factors that create long-term economic value in an organization, for example:

      • Customer Focus: satisfy, retain and acquire customers in targeted segments

      • Business Processes: deliver the value proposition to targeted customers

        • innovative products and services

        • high-quality, flexible, and responsive operating processes

        • excellent post-sales support

      • Organizational Learning & Growth:

        • develop skilled, motivated employees;

        • provide access to strategic information

        • align individuals and teams to business unit objectives

    .


    The four perspectives apply to mission driven as well as profit driven organizations

    The Four Perspectives Apply to Mission Driven As Well As Profit Driven Organizations

    Profit Driven

    Mission Driven

    Answering these questions is the first step to develop a Balanced Scorecard

    • What must we do to satisfy our shareholders?

    • What do our customers expect from us?

    • What internal processes must we excel at to satisfy our shareholder and customer?

    • How must our people learn and develop skills to respond to these and future challenges?

    Financial Perspective

    Customer Perspective

    Internal Perspective

    Learning & Growth Perspective

    • What must we do to satisfy our financial contributors?

    • What are our fiscal obligations?

    • Who is our customer?

    • What do our customers expect from us?

    • What internal processes must we excel at to satisfy our fiscal obligations, our customers and the requirements of our mission?

    • How must our people learn and develop skills to respond to these and future challenges?


    Chapter 12 leadership implications for strategy

    Environmental Scan

    Strengths Weaknesses

    Opportunities Threats

    A Model for

    Strategic

    Planning

    Values

    Mission &

    Vision

    Strategic Issues

    Strategic Priorities

    Objectives, Initiatives, and Evaluation


    Why measure

    Why Measure?

    • To determine how effectively and efficiently the process or service satisfies the customer.

    • To identify improvement opportunities.

    • To make decisions based on FACT and DATA


    Measurements should

    Measurements Should:

    • Translate customer expectations into goals.

    • Evaluate the quality of processes.

    • Track our improvement.

    • Focus our efforts on our customers.

    • Support our strategies.


    Targets

    Targets

    • Targets need to be set for all measures

    • Should have a “solid basis”

    • Give personnel something for which to aim

    • If achieved will transform the organization

    • Careful not to develop measures/targets in

      a fragmented approach:

      i.e. Asking people to increase customer satisfaction has to be backed up with the knowledge, tools, and means to achieve that target.


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