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Vocabulary Week #2. 1. monomer - single unit of a macromolecule. 2 . polymer - large macromolecule comprised of many monomers. 3. catalyst - something that speeds up a reaction. 4. enzyme - protein that acts as a catalyst. 5. calibrate - to adjust precisely for a particular function.

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vocabulary week 2
Vocabulary Week #2
  • 1. monomer- single unit of a macromolecule.
  • 2. polymer- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers.
  • 3. catalyst- something that speeds up a reaction.
  • 4. enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst.
  • 5. calibrate- to adjust precisely for a particular function.
  • 6. saccharide- sugar
  • 7. amino acid- monomer of a protein
  • 8. covalent bond- strongest bond type, electrons shared
  • 9. ionic bond- bond where electrons are transferred.
biological molecules

Biological Molecules

Why are we learning about inorganic molecules when Biology focuses on living organisms?

sequence
SEQUENCE
  • Place the steps of the scientific method in sequential order.
  • Hint: Sequential is the adj. for sequence.
  • Place post it on the yellow sheet with your first and last name.
bellringer 8 20 13
Bellringer 8-20-13
  • Create a Bar graph for the following Poverty Guidelines for America 2013.
similarities to bi o logy while all organisms are different all share some similiarities
Similarities to BiologyWhile all organisms are different; all share some similiarities
  • Composed of Cells
  • Levels of Organization
  • Use energy
  • Respond to the Environment/ Stimuli
  • Growth & Development
  • Reproduction
  • Adapt to Environment-Evolve
  • Homeostasis
  • Universal Genetic Code-DNA
atoms
Atoms
  • Atoms are the smallest unit of matter.
    • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
atomic composition
Atomic Composition
  • Protons- positive charge, located in nucleus.
  • Neutrons- neutral, located in nucleus.
  • Electrons-negative charge, located in electron shells around the nucleus.
terminology
Terminology
  • Element- pure substance, made of only one kind of atom
  • Compound & Molecules- two or more elements held together by bonds
element importance to organisms
Element Importance to Organisms
  • 98% of living organisms are composed of the following elements:
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Chemical bond is when atoms bond together to form a molecule.
    • 3 Types of Chemical Bonds:
      • Covalent bonds
      • Ionic bonds
      • Hydrogen bonding
ionic bonds electrons are transferred between atoms
Ionic Bonds- electrons are transferred between atoms.
  • “Opposites attract”
  • Cations
  • Anions
assignment refer to p 36 38 41
Assignment refer to p. 36, 38, 41
  • Draw the atomic structure of Carbon: Label protons, neutrons, electrons.
assignment
Assignment
  • Draw lines on your notebook paper to make six boxes.
  • Write the name of the six major elements in organisms.
  • Diagram the atomic nucleus and surrounding electrons. Make sure the atom structure is accurate.
    • Protons-green
    • Neutrons-blue
    • Electrons-red
graphing practice
Graphing Practice
  • Graph the following information using a line graph.
  • Bond Type (x axis) Bond Strength (y axis)
    • Covalent Bond 50
    • Ionic Bond 7
    • Hydrogen Bond 3
    • Van der Waals 1
vocab practice
Vocab Practice
  • What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?
water
Water
  • Held together by weak hydrogen bonds.
1 cohesion
1. Cohesion
  • 1. Cohesion-water’s ability to stick to other water molecules.
  • This causes:
    • Surface tension
    • Capillary action
    • Walking on water
2 adhesion
2. Adhesion
  • 2. Adhesion-the ability of water to stick to other substances.
  • This causes:
    • Capillary action
    • Water moving up a tree’s vessels
3 polarity
3. Polarity
  • Polarity= ability to dissolve= universal solvent
  • Think tea, KoolAid, sugar and salt water
4 water density
4. Water Density
  • Ice is less dense than liquid water= floats.
  • Aquatic organisms do not die in the winter.
5 high specific heat
5. High Specific Heat
  • Takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water.
  • Water will moderate climate because of its high heat capacity.
6 high heat of vaporization
6. High Heat of Vaporization
  • Takes a lot of heat energy to change water from a liquid to a gas.
  • This causes:
    • Evaporative cooling/sweating
anticipatory set
Anticipatory Set
  • 1. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?
  • 2. Which variable do you control: independent or dependent?
bellringer graded today week 1
Bellringer Graded Today- Week 1
  • 1. ______- educated guess
  • 2. ______- variable given to the experimental group, controlled by scientist
  • 3. _____- measured by scientist, experiment outcome
  • 4. _____- group that receives no independent variable
  • 5. _____- group that receives independent variable
  • 6. _____- explains how nature works, many hypotheses proven multiple times
  • 7. _____-explains what nature does under certain conditions, but does not explain why (math laws)
  • 8. _____- way scientists investigate
vocabulary week 21
Vocabulary Week #2
  • 9. _____- single unit of a macromolecule.
  • 10._____- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers.
  • 11._____- something that speeds up a reaction.
  • 12._____ protein that acts as a catalyst.
  • 13.- to adjust precisely for a particular function.
  • 14._____- sugar
  • 15._____ monomer of a protein
  • 16. _____- strongest bond type, electrons shared
  • 17._____- bond where electrons are transferred.
vocabulary week 3
Vocabulary Week #3
  • 18. _____ compound that has carbon and hydrogen
  • 19._____- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.
  • 20. _____- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14)
  • 21. _____- two
  • 22. _____- many
  • TEST TOMORROW…IT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES.
vocabulary week 31
Vocabulary Week #3
  • 1. organic- compound that has carbon and hydrogen
  • 2. inorganic- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.
  • 3. isotope- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14)
  • 4. di- two
  • 5. poly- many
  • TEST ON FRIDAY…IT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES.
scientific method practice
Scientific Method Practice
  • A hunter wants to attract the largest buck to his food plot. He has heard of several ways of doing this, and wants to design an experiment to try out a method other than just planting corn. For our purposes he has 1000 acres with one water source through the whole property.
  • Propose Hypothesis:
  • Experimental Group: Control Group:
  • Dependent variable: Independent variable:
ph scale
pH Scale
  • Water molecules have a strong affinity for one another, but can break apart.
  • H2O « H+    +    OH-
  •  water         hydrogen     hydroxide
  •                         ion                    ion
  • More H = acid
  • More OH = base
ph scale1
pH Scale
  • Each number represents a jump in ten.
  • Buffers can be added to maintain homeostasis.
ph practice
pH Practice
  • pH 1-2:___
  • pH 4-8: ___
  • pH 3-7: ___
  • pH 5-10: ___
calculate ph differences in h concentration
Calculate pH differences in H concentration
  • pH 2- pH 5
  • pH 1- pH 2
  • pH 3- pH 8
  • pH 7 – pH 10
  • pH 1- pH 14
  • pH 1- pH 3
  • pH 10- pH 14
  • pH 3- pH 7
  • pH 5 – pH 10
  • pH 1- pH 11
inquiry lab 2 ph
Inquiry Lab #2: pH
  • Create a table as shown below to record substance & pH.
  • Create a pH scale, and record your substances. Must have 10 substances on scale.
  • Answer the following:
  • 1. Why do most of the food substances measured have a pH close to 7.
  • 2. Label acids, Bases, Neutral,
  • 3. What does pH measure?
  • 4. Compareacidic and basic solutions in terms of their H+ and OH- ion concentrations.
bellringer 8 28 13
Bellringer 8-28-13
  • SUMMARIZE the difference between a monomer and a polymer?
  • SUMMARIZE the difference between an acid and a base.
  • Name the property of water responsible for:
    • Evaporative cooling (sweating)=
    • Climate moderation=
elements present in your body
Elements present in your body
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • If carbon is present then the compound is considered ___________.
four classes of organic biomolecules
Four Classes of Organic Biomolecules
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids or fats
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio.
  • Function:
    • provide energy in plants and animals
    • cell support in plants.
  • Carbohydrates are the most readily available energy source when ingested. Main energy supply.
carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • When carbs are broken down, energy is released as ATP.
  • If the energy is unneeded, then the glucose is stored:
    • Glycogen: in the liver or muscles.
    • Cellulose and starch: in plants.
carbohydrate structure
Carbohydrate Structure
  • 1 carbohydrate = ______________
    • Glucose- most important, plant sugar
    • Fructose- fruit sugar
    • Galactose-milk sugar
  • When two monosaccharides combine they create a_______________

sucrose — table sugar = glucose + fructose

lactose — milk sugar = glucose + galactose

maltose — malt sugar = glucose + glucose

Many monosaccharides = ________________

after ingesting carbohydrates where do they go
After ingesting carbohydrates, where do they go?
  • Carbohydrate Digestion Animation
carbohydrate structure1
Carbohydrate Structure
  • Carbohydrates can be isomers: same chemical formula, but different structural formula. 
slide55

Figure 3.15 Disaccharides Are Formed by Glycosidic Linkages (Part 2)

ThiThis is cellobiose, a subunit of cellulose, humans don’t have the enzymes to break this down, but cows do. To us it is merely roughage.

Cellulose is a very stable glucose polymer, and is the principle component of cell walls.

dehydration synthesis aka polymerization
Dehydration Synthesis aka Polymerization
  • Process by which complex carbohydrates are made.
  • From the name it can be inferred that water is removed, resulting in a glycosidic bond.
  • Examples of polysaccharides:
    • Starch-stored excess plant sugars
    • Cellulose-plant cell wall formation
    • Glycogen-stored excess animal sugar.
  • To break apart carbohydrates hydrolysis must occur, i.e. the addition of water.
  • http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html
lipids
Lipids
  • Lipid monomer: glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acid molecules .
  • Contain C, H, O
  • Long term energy
  • Fats, oils, wax, steroids

cholesterol

Nonpolar= do not dissolve

energy and calories
Energy and Calories
  • Calorie is a unit of energy.
  • To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day
  • men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day
  • Carbs have 4cal/g
  • Fats have 9cal/g
  • Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.
inquiry lab 2 calculating food calories
Inquiry Lab #2: Calculating Food Calories
  • Use the food labels around the room to gather calorie information.
  • Calculate
    • cal./g
    • cal./100g
  • Complete bar graph with the food type and calories per serving. Remember TALKS!
lipids1
Lipids
  • There are three types of fatty acids:
    • Saturated fatty acid- all C-C are single, max number of H atoms, solid at room temp., ex. butter and meat fat
    • Unsaturated fatty acid-C-C are double or triple, usually liquid at room temp., ex. Peanut, corn, and olive oils
    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid- many C-C double or triple bonds, ex. Canola and vegetable oil.
bellringer 9 3 13
Bellringer 9-3-13
  • Create a pie graph using the following questions.
  • ¼ graph state your favorite kind of vehicle
  • ¼ graph state your favorite type of pizza topping
  • 1/8 graph state your least favorite school lunch
  • 1/8 state your favorite color
  • 1/8 state your ideal job
  • 1/8 state your favorite season
carbohydrate lipid review
Carbohydrate & Lipid Review

Carbohydrates

Lipids

  • Elements present: _________
  • Function: ________________
  • Source: __________________
  • Examples: ________________
  • Elements Present: _________
  • Function: ________________
  • Source: __________________
  • Examples:________________
exit slip 9 3 12
Exit Slip 9-3-12
  • Create a model of a carbohydrate and a lipid as shown on your sheet.
  • Make sure that it is initialed for credit.
bellringer 9 4 13
Bellringer 9-4-13
  • GENERALIZE the similarities between carbohydrates and lipids. GENERALIZE their differences.
  • 1. Complete your carbohydrate model.
  • 2. Complete your lipid molecule.
  • 3. Exit Slip due today.
  • 4. Grade Conferences Today
  • 5. Homework Due Tomorrow.
proteins
Proteins
  • Contain: C, H, O, N, P, and S
  • Monomers of proteins are amino acids.
  • Amino acids link by peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains.
  • Proteins must fold to be functional.
essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids
  • Over 20 amino acids
    • 11 non-essential
    • 9 essential
    • These 9 are essential because they cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplemented.
  • Phenyalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Isoleucine
  • Methionine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
proteins1
Proteins
  • Function of Proteins:
    • antibodies (immunity)
    • enzymes
    • cell structure
    • energy storage.
  • Can be found in meats/muscle, collagen (in cells), keratin (hair and nails).
vocabulary list 4
Vocabulary List #4
  • 1. Monosaccharide- one sugar
  • 2. Disaccharide- two sugars
  • 3. Polysaccharide- many sugars
  • 4. Lipid- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids
  • 5. Enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst
  • 6. Metabolism- all chemical reactions in the body
  • 7. Catabolism- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food
  • 8. Anabolism- metabolism that involved building up e.g. steroids
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Enzymes are proteins that are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
  • “ase”= enzymes
  • Enzymes form an enzyme-substrate complex , and speed up catabolic processes.
  • Enzyme Animation
metabolism
Metabolism
  • Metabolism = chemical reactions in your body
  • Catabolism= breakdown
  • Anabolism= building up
  • The energy it takes to get a chemical reaction started is called the activation energy.
  • Some reactions take a long time; therefore, need a catalyst.
    • Catalyst-substance that speeds up the reaction
    • Catabolic Anabolic
animations
Animations
  • Body Tract Animation
  • ADAM Animation
  • 40s Food Digestion
enzymes sketch
Enzymes Sketch
  • Title the Page: Types of Metabolism, and divide sheet in 1/2
  • Draw Anabolism and Catabolism
  • Be sure to include these terms on both drawings:
    • Substrate
    • Product
    • Active site
    • Enzyme
    • Enzyme-substrate complex
vocabulary list 41
Vocabulary List #4
  • 1. ___________- one sugar
  • 2. ___________- two sugars
  • 3. ___________- many sugars
  • 4. ___________- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids
  • 5. ___________- protein that acts as a catalyst
  • 6. ___________- all chemical reactions in the body
  • 7. ___________- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food
  • 8. ___________- metabolism that involved building up e.g. steroids
quiz tomorrow review
Quiz Tomorrow Review
  • Elements in a carbohydrate: ____________
  • Elements in a lipid: ____________
  • Function of a Carbohydrate: _____________
  • Function of a lipid: _______________
  • Monomer of a Carbohydrate: _________________
  • Monomer of a lipid: ___________________________
  • Carbohydrates are polar/nonpolar
  • Lipids are polar/nonpolar
energy and calories1
Energy and Calories
  • Calorie is a unit of energy.
  • To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day
  • men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day
  • Carbs have 4cal/g
  • Fats have 9cal/g
  • Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.
after you swallow where does it go
After you Swallow…Where does it go?
  • Digestion Animation
  • Lipid Metabolism
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Contain: C, H, O, N, P
  • Monomer : nucleotide which consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
  • Two Types of Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

deoxyribose=sugar DNA

ribose=sugar RNA

  • Codes for genetic information
question of the day
Question of the Day
  • What are the four classes of biomolecules?
  • What are you planning on doing over Thanksgiving break?
  • Do your plans relate to your aspirations you wrote down on the first day?
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