Vocabulary week 2
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Vocabulary Week #2. 1. monomer - single unit of a macromolecule. 2 . polymer - large macromolecule comprised of many monomers. 3. catalyst - something that speeds up a reaction. 4. enzyme - protein that acts as a catalyst. 5. calibrate - to adjust precisely for a particular function.

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Vocabulary Week #2

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Vocabulary Week #2

  • 1. monomer- single unit of a macromolecule.

  • 2. polymer- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers.

  • 3. catalyst- something that speeds up a reaction.

  • 4. enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst.

  • 5. calibrate- to adjust precisely for a particular function.

  • 6. saccharide- sugar

  • 7. amino acid- monomer of a protein

  • 8. covalent bond- strongest bond type, electrons shared

  • 9. ionic bond- bond where electrons are transferred.


Biological Molecules

Why are we learning about inorganic molecules when Biology focuses on living organisms?


EOC Level 2


EOC Level 3


SEQUENCE

  • Place the steps of the scientific method in sequential order.

  • Hint: Sequential is the adj. for sequence.

  • Place post it on the yellow sheet with your first and last name.


Bellringer 8-20-13

  • Create a Bar graph for the following Poverty Guidelines for America 2013.


Levels of Organization


Similarities to BiologyWhile all organisms are different; all share some similiarities

  • Composed of Cells

  • Levels of Organization

  • Use energy

  • Respond to the Environment/ Stimuli

  • Growth & Development

  • Reproduction

  • Adapt to Environment-Evolve

  • Homeostasis

  • Universal Genetic Code-DNA


Atoms

  • Atoms are the smallest unit of matter.

    • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.


Atomic Composition

  • Protons- positive charge, located in nucleus.

  • Neutrons- neutral, located in nucleus.

  • Electrons-negative charge, located in electron shells around the nucleus.


Figure 2.2 The Periodic Table (Part 1)


Terminology

  • Element- pure substance, made of only one kind of atom

  • Compound & Molecules- two or more elements held together by bonds


Element Importance to Organisms

  • 98% of living organisms are composed of the following elements:

    • Carbon

    • Hydrogen

    • Oxygen

    • Nitrogen

    • Phosphorous

    • Sulfur


Chemical Bonds

  • Chemical bond is when atoms bond together to form a molecule.

    • 3 Types of Chemical Bonds:

      • Covalent bonds

      • Ionic bonds

      • Hydrogen bonding


Bellringer 8-21-13


Covalent Bonds- atoms share electrons to form a molecule


Ionic Bonds- electrons are transferred between atoms.

  • “Opposites attract”

  • Cations

  • Anions


Hydrogen Bonds- weak bonds between water molecules.


Assignment refer to p. 36, 38, 41

  • Draw the atomic structure of Carbon: Label protons, neutrons, electrons.


Assignment

  • Draw lines on your notebook paper to make six boxes.

  • Write the name of the six major elements in organisms.

  • Diagram the atomic nucleus and surrounding electrons. Make sure the atom structure is accurate.

    • Protons-green

    • Neutrons-blue

    • Electrons-red


EOC Lev. 2


Graphing Practice

  • Graph the following information using a line graph.

  • Bond Type (x axis)Bond Strength (y axis)

    • Covalent Bond50

    • Ionic Bond7

    • Hydrogen Bond3

    • Van der Waals1


Vocab Practice

  • What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?


Water

  • Held together by weak hydrogen bonds.


1. Cohesion

  • 1. Cohesion-water’s ability to stick to other water molecules.

  • This causes:

    • Surface tension

    • Capillary action

    • Walking on water


2. Adhesion

  • 2. Adhesion-the ability of water to stick to other substances.

  • This causes:

    • Capillary action

    • Water moving up a tree’s vessels


3. Polarity

  • Polarity= ability to dissolve= universal solvent

  • Think tea, KoolAid, sugar and salt water


4. Water Density

  • Ice is less dense than liquid water= floats.

  • Aquatic organisms do not die in the winter.


5. High Specific Heat

  • Takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water.

  • Water will moderate climate because of its high heat capacity.


6. High Heat of Vaporization

  • Takes a lot of heat energy to change water from a liquid to a gas.

  • This causes:

    • Evaporative cooling/sweating


Anticipatory Set

  • 1. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?

  • 2. Which variable do you control: independent or dependent?


Bellringer Graded Today- Week 1

  • 1. ______- educated guess

  • 2. ______- variable given to the experimental group, controlled by scientist

  • 3. _____- measured by scientist, experiment outcome

  • 4. _____- group that receives no independent variable

  • 5. _____- group that receives independent variable

  • 6. _____- explains how nature works, many hypotheses proven multiple times

  • 7. _____-explains what nature does under certain conditions, but does not explain why (math laws)

  • 8. _____- way scientists investigate


Vocabulary Week #2

  • 9. _____- single unit of a macromolecule.

  • 10._____- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers.

  • 11._____- something that speeds up a reaction.

  • 12._____ protein that acts as a catalyst.

  • 13.- to adjust precisely for a particular function.

  • 14._____- sugar

  • 15._____ monomer of a protein

  • 16. _____- strongest bond type, electrons shared

  • 17._____- bond where electrons are transferred.


Vocabulary Week #3

  • 18. _____ compound that has carbon and hydrogen

  • 19._____- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.

  • 20. _____- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14)

  • 21. _____- two

  • 22. _____- many

  • TEST TOMORROW…IT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES.


Vocabulary Week #3

  • 1. organic- compound that has carbon and hydrogen

  • 2. inorganic- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.

  • 3. isotope- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14)

  • 4. di- two

  • 5. poly- many

  • TEST ON FRIDAY…IT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES.


EOC Lev. 2


Scientific Method Practice

  • A hunter wants to attract the largest buck to his food plot. He has heard of several ways of doing this, and wants to design an experiment to try out a method other than just planting corn. For our purposes he has 1000 acres with one water source through the whole property.

  • Propose Hypothesis:

  • Experimental Group:Control Group:

  • Dependent variable:Independent variable:


pH Scale

  • Water molecules have a strong affinity for one another, but can break apart.

  • H2O « H+    +    OH-

  •  water         hydrogen     hydroxide

  •                         ion                    ion

  • More H = acid

  • More OH = base


pH Scale

  • Each number represents a jump in ten.

  • Buffers can be added to maintain homeostasis.


pH is a Log scale


pH Practice

  • pH 1-2:___

  • pH 4-8: ___

  • pH 3-7: ___

  • pH 5-10: ___


Calculate pH differences in H concentration

  • pH 2- pH 5

  • pH 1- pH 2

  • pH 3- pH 8

  • pH 7 – pH 10

  • pH 1- pH 14

  • pH 1- pH 3

  • pH 10- pH 14

  • pH 3- pH 7

  • pH 5 – pH 10

  • pH 1- pH 11


Inquiry Lab #2: pH

  • Create a table as shown below to record substance & pH.

  • Create a pH scale, and record your substances. Must have 10 substances on scale.

  • Answer the following:

  • 1. Why do most of the food substances measured have a pH close to 7.

  • 2. Label acids, Bases, Neutral,

  • 3. What does pH measure?

  • 4. Compareacidic and basic solutions in terms of their H+ and OH- ion concentrations.


Bellringer 8-28-13

  • SUMMARIZE the difference between a monomer and a polymer?

  • SUMMARIZE the difference between an acid and a base.

  • Name the property of water responsible for:

    • Evaporative cooling (sweating)=

    • Climate moderation=


EOC Level 3 & 3


EOC Level 3 & Level 2


EOC Level 2


Elements present in your body

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • If carbon is present then the compound is considered ___________.


Four Classes of Organic Biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids or fats

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids


Carbohydrates

  • Contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio.

  • Function:

    • provide energy in plants and animals

    • cell support in plants.

  • Carbohydrates are the most readily available energy source when ingested. Main energy supply.


Carbohydrates

  • When carbs are broken down, energy is released as ATP.

  • If the energy is unneeded, then the glucose is stored:

    • Glycogen: in the liver or muscles.

    • Cellulose and starch: in plants.


Carbohydrate Structure

  • 1 carbohydrate = ______________

    • Glucose- most important, plant sugar

    • Fructose- fruit sugar

    • Galactose-milk sugar

  • When two monosaccharides combine they create a_______________

    sucrose — table sugar = glucose + fructose

    lactose — milk sugar = glucose + galactose

    maltose — malt sugar = glucose + glucose

    Many monosaccharides = ________________


After ingesting carbohydrates, where do they go?

  • Carbohydrate Digestion Animation


Carbohydrate Structure

  • Carbohydrates can be isomers: same chemical formula, but different structural formula. 


Figure 3.15 Disaccharides Are Formed by Glycosidic Linkages (Part 2)

ThiThis is cellobiose, a subunit of cellulose, humans don’t have the enzymes to break this down, but cows do. To us it is merely roughage.

Cellulose is a very stable glucose polymer, and is the principle component of cell walls.


Dehydration Synthesis aka Polymerization

  • Process by which complex carbohydrates are made.

  • From the name it can be inferred that water is removed, resulting in a glycosidic bond.

  • Examples of polysaccharides:

    • Starch-stored excess plant sugars

    • Cellulose-plant cell wall formation

    • Glycogen-stored excess animal sugar.

  • To break apart carbohydrates hydrolysis must occur, i.e. the addition of water.

  • http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html


Lipids

  • Lipid monomer: glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acid molecules .

  • Contain C, H, O

  • Long term energy

  • Fats, oils, wax, steroids

    cholesterol

    Nonpolar= do not dissolve


Figure 3.18 Synthesis of a Triglyceride


Energy and Calories

  • Calorie is a unit of energy.

  • To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day

  • men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day

  • Carbs have 4cal/g

  • Fats have 9cal/g

  • Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.


Inquiry Lab #2: Calculating Food Calories

  • Use the food labels around the room to gather calorie information.

  • Calculate

    • cal./g

    • cal./100g

  • Complete bar graph with the food type and calories per serving. Remember TALKS!


Lipids

  • There are three types of fatty acids:

    • Saturated fatty acid- all C-C are single, max number of H atoms, solid at room temp., ex. butter and meat fat

    • Unsaturated fatty acid-C-C are double or triple, usually liquid at room temp., ex. Peanut, corn, and olive oils

    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid- many C-C double or triple bonds, ex. Canola and vegetable oil.


Bellringer 9-3-13

  • Create a pie graph using the following questions.

  • ¼ graph state your favorite kind of vehicle

  • ¼ graph state your favorite type of pizza topping

  • 1/8 graph state your least favorite school lunch

  • 1/8 state your favorite color

  • 1/8 state your ideal job

  • 1/8 state your favorite season


Level 3


Level 2


Carbohydrate & Lipid Review

Carbohydrates

Lipids

  • Elements present: _________

  • Function: ________________

  • Source: __________________

  • Examples: ________________

  • Elements Present: _________

  • Function: ________________

  • Source: __________________

  • Examples:________________


Exit Slip 9-3-12

  • Create a model of a carbohydrate and a lipid as shown on your sheet.

  • Make sure that it is initialed for credit.


Bellringer 9-4-13

  • GENERALIZE the similarities between carbohydrates and lipids. GENERALIZE their differences.

  • 1. Complete your carbohydrate model.

  • 2. Complete your lipid molecule.

  • 3. Exit Slip due today.

  • 4. Grade Conferences Today

  • 5. Homework Due Tomorrow.


Proteins

  • Contain: C, H, O, N, P, and S

  • Monomers of proteins are amino acids.

  • Amino acids link by peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains.

  • Proteins must fold to be functional.


Essential Amino Acids

  • Over 20 amino acids

    • 11 non-essential

    • 9 essential

    • These 9 are essential because they cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplemented.

  • Phenyalanine

  • Valine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Isoleucine

  • Methionine

  • Leucine

  • Lysine

  • Histidine


Proteins

  • Function of Proteins:

    • antibodies (immunity)

    • enzymes

    • cell structure

    • energy storage.

  • Can be found in meats/muscle, collagen (in cells), keratin (hair and nails).


Vocabulary List #4

  • 1. Monosaccharide- one sugar

  • 2. Disaccharide- two sugars

  • 3. Polysaccharide- many sugars

  • 4. Lipid- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids

  • 5. Enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst

  • 6. Metabolism- all chemical reactions in the body

  • 7. Catabolism- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food

  • 8. Anabolism- metabolism that involved building up e.g. steroids


Level 2


Enzymes

  • Enzymes are proteins that are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells.

  • “ase”= enzymes

  • Enzymes form an enzyme-substrate complex , and speed up catabolic processes.

  • Enzyme Animation


Metabolism

  • Metabolism = chemical reactions in your body

  • Catabolism= breakdown

  • Anabolism= building up

  • The energy it takes to get a chemical reaction started is called the activation energy.

  • Some reactions take a long time; therefore, need a catalyst.

    • Catalyst-substance that speeds up the reaction

    • Catabolic Anabolic


Animations

  • Body Tract Animation

  • ADAM Animation

  • 40s Food Digestion


Enzymes Sketch

  • Title the Page: Types of Metabolism, and divide sheet in 1/2

  • Draw Anabolism and Catabolism

  • Be sure to include these terms on both drawings:

    • Substrate

    • Product

    • Active site

    • Enzyme

    • Enzyme-substrate complex


Exit Slip 9-9-13


A


Vocabulary List #4

  • 1. ___________- one sugar

  • 2. ___________- two sugars

  • 3. ___________- many sugars

  • 4. ___________- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids

  • 5. ___________- protein that acts as a catalyst

  • 6. ___________- all chemical reactions in the body

  • 7. ___________- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food

  • 8. ___________- metabolism that involved building up e.g. steroids


Quiz Tomorrow Review

  • Elements in a carbohydrate: ____________

  • Elements in a lipid: ____________

  • Function of a Carbohydrate: _____________

  • Function of a lipid: _______________

  • Monomer of a Carbohydrate: _________________

  • Monomer of a lipid: ___________________________

  • Carbohydrates are polar/nonpolar

  • Lipids are polar/nonpolar


Energy and Calories

  • Calorie is a unit of energy.

  • To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day

  • men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day

  • Carbs have 4cal/g

  • Fats have 9cal/g

  • Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.


So which exercise is good for you?


After you Swallow…Where does it go?

  • Digestion Animation

  • Lipid Metabolism


Nucleic Acids

  • Contain: C, H, O, N, P

  • Monomer : nucleotide which consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.

  • Two Types of Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

    deoxyribose=sugar DNA

    ribose=sugar RNA

  • Codes for genetic information


Question of the Day

  • What are the four classes of biomolecules?

  • What are you planning on doing over Thanksgiving break?

  • Do your plans relate to your aspirations you wrote down on the first day?


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