Vocabulary week 2
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Vocabulary Week #2. 1. monomer - single unit of a macromolecule. 2 . polymer - large macromolecule comprised of many monomers. 3. catalyst - something that speeds up a reaction. 4. enzyme - protein that acts as a catalyst. 5. calibrate - to adjust precisely for a particular function.

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Vocabulary Week #2

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Vocabulary week 2

Vocabulary Week #2

  • 1. monomer- single unit of a macromolecule.

  • 2. polymer- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers.

  • 3. catalyst- something that speeds up a reaction.

  • 4. enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst.

  • 5. calibrate- to adjust precisely for a particular function.

  • 6. saccharide- sugar

  • 7. amino acid- monomer of a protein

  • 8. covalent bond- strongest bond type, electrons shared

  • 9. ionic bond- bond where electrons are transferred.


Biological molecules

Biological Molecules

Why are we learning about inorganic molecules when Biology focuses on living organisms?


Eoc level 2

EOC Level 2


Eoc level 3

EOC Level 3


Sequence

SEQUENCE

  • Place the steps of the scientific method in sequential order.

  • Hint: Sequential is the adj. for sequence.

  • Place post it on the yellow sheet with your first and last name.


Bellringer 8 20 13

Bellringer 8-20-13

  • Create a Bar graph for the following Poverty Guidelines for America 2013.


Levels of organization

Levels of Organization


Similarities to bi o logy while all organisms are different all share some similiarities

Similarities to BiologyWhile all organisms are different; all share some similiarities

  • Composed of Cells

  • Levels of Organization

  • Use energy

  • Respond to the Environment/ Stimuli

  • Growth & Development

  • Reproduction

  • Adapt to Environment-Evolve

  • Homeostasis

  • Universal Genetic Code-DNA


Atoms

Atoms

  • Atoms are the smallest unit of matter.

    • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.


Atomic composition

Atomic Composition

  • Protons- positive charge, located in nucleus.

  • Neutrons- neutral, located in nucleus.

  • Electrons-negative charge, located in electron shells around the nucleus.


Vocabulary week 2

Figure 2.2 The Periodic Table (Part 1)


Terminology

Terminology

  • Element- pure substance, made of only one kind of atom

  • Compound & Molecules- two or more elements held together by bonds


Element importance to organisms

Element Importance to Organisms

  • 98% of living organisms are composed of the following elements:

    • Carbon

    • Hydrogen

    • Oxygen

    • Nitrogen

    • Phosphorous

    • Sulfur


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

  • Chemical bond is when atoms bond together to form a molecule.

    • 3 Types of Chemical Bonds:

      • Covalent bonds

      • Ionic bonds

      • Hydrogen bonding


Bellringer 8 21 13

Bellringer 8-21-13


Covalent bonds atoms share electrons to form a molecule

Covalent Bonds- atoms share electrons to form a molecule


Ionic bonds electrons are transferred between atoms

Ionic Bonds- electrons are transferred between atoms.

  • “Opposites attract”

  • Cations

  • Anions


Hydrogen bonds weak bonds between water molecules

Hydrogen Bonds- weak bonds between water molecules.


Assignment refer to p 36 38 41

Assignment refer to p. 36, 38, 41

  • Draw the atomic structure of Carbon: Label protons, neutrons, electrons.


Assignment

Assignment

  • Draw lines on your notebook paper to make six boxes.

  • Write the name of the six major elements in organisms.

  • Diagram the atomic nucleus and surrounding electrons. Make sure the atom structure is accurate.

    • Protons-green

    • Neutrons-blue

    • Electrons-red


Eoc lev 2

EOC Lev. 2


Graphing practice

Graphing Practice

  • Graph the following information using a line graph.

  • Bond Type (x axis)Bond Strength (y axis)

    • Covalent Bond50

    • Ionic Bond7

    • Hydrogen Bond3

    • Van der Waals1


Vocab practice

Vocab Practice

  • What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?


Water

Water

  • Held together by weak hydrogen bonds.


1 cohesion

1. Cohesion

  • 1. Cohesion-water’s ability to stick to other water molecules.

  • This causes:

    • Surface tension

    • Capillary action

    • Walking on water


2 adhesion

2. Adhesion

  • 2. Adhesion-the ability of water to stick to other substances.

  • This causes:

    • Capillary action

    • Water moving up a tree’s vessels


3 polarity

3. Polarity

  • Polarity= ability to dissolve= universal solvent

  • Think tea, KoolAid, sugar and salt water


4 water density

4. Water Density

  • Ice is less dense than liquid water= floats.

  • Aquatic organisms do not die in the winter.


5 high specific heat

5. High Specific Heat

  • Takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water.

  • Water will moderate climate because of its high heat capacity.


6 high heat of vaporization

6. High Heat of Vaporization

  • Takes a lot of heat energy to change water from a liquid to a gas.

  • This causes:

    • Evaporative cooling/sweating


Anticipatory set

Anticipatory Set

  • 1. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?

  • 2. Which variable do you control: independent or dependent?


Bellringer graded today week 1

Bellringer Graded Today- Week 1

  • 1. ______- educated guess

  • 2. ______- variable given to the experimental group, controlled by scientist

  • 3. _____- measured by scientist, experiment outcome

  • 4. _____- group that receives no independent variable

  • 5. _____- group that receives independent variable

  • 6. _____- explains how nature works, many hypotheses proven multiple times

  • 7. _____-explains what nature does under certain conditions, but does not explain why (math laws)

  • 8. _____- way scientists investigate


Vocabulary week 21

Vocabulary Week #2

  • 9. _____- single unit of a macromolecule.

  • 10._____- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers.

  • 11._____- something that speeds up a reaction.

  • 12._____ protein that acts as a catalyst.

  • 13.- to adjust precisely for a particular function.

  • 14._____- sugar

  • 15._____ monomer of a protein

  • 16. _____- strongest bond type, electrons shared

  • 17._____- bond where electrons are transferred.


Vocabulary week 3

Vocabulary Week #3

  • 18. _____ compound that has carbon and hydrogen

  • 19._____- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.

  • 20. _____- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14)

  • 21. _____- two

  • 22. _____- many

  • TEST TOMORROW…IT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES.


Vocabulary week 31

Vocabulary Week #3

  • 1. organic- compound that has carbon and hydrogen

  • 2. inorganic- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.

  • 3. isotope- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14)

  • 4. di- two

  • 5. poly- many

  • TEST ON FRIDAY…IT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES.


Eoc lev 21

EOC Lev. 2


Scientific method practice

Scientific Method Practice

  • A hunter wants to attract the largest buck to his food plot. He has heard of several ways of doing this, and wants to design an experiment to try out a method other than just planting corn. For our purposes he has 1000 acres with one water source through the whole property.

  • Propose Hypothesis:

  • Experimental Group:Control Group:

  • Dependent variable:Independent variable:


Ph scale

pH Scale

  • Water molecules have a strong affinity for one another, but can break apart.

  • H2O « H+    +    OH-

  •  water         hydrogen     hydroxide

  •                         ion                    ion

  • More H = acid

  • More OH = base


Ph scale1

pH Scale

  • Each number represents a jump in ten.

  • Buffers can be added to maintain homeostasis.


Ph is a log scale

pH is a Log scale


Ph practice

pH Practice

  • pH 1-2:___

  • pH 4-8: ___

  • pH 3-7: ___

  • pH 5-10: ___


Calculate ph differences in h concentration

Calculate pH differences in H concentration

  • pH 2- pH 5

  • pH 1- pH 2

  • pH 3- pH 8

  • pH 7 – pH 10

  • pH 1- pH 14

  • pH 1- pH 3

  • pH 10- pH 14

  • pH 3- pH 7

  • pH 5 – pH 10

  • pH 1- pH 11


Inquiry lab 2 ph

Inquiry Lab #2: pH

  • Create a table as shown below to record substance & pH.

  • Create a pH scale, and record your substances. Must have 10 substances on scale.

  • Answer the following:

  • 1. Why do most of the food substances measured have a pH close to 7.

  • 2. Label acids, Bases, Neutral,

  • 3. What does pH measure?

  • 4. Compareacidic and basic solutions in terms of their H+ and OH- ion concentrations.


Bellringer 8 28 13

Bellringer 8-28-13

  • SUMMARIZE the difference between a monomer and a polymer?

  • SUMMARIZE the difference between an acid and a base.

  • Name the property of water responsible for:

    • Evaporative cooling (sweating)=

    • Climate moderation=


Eoc level 3 3

EOC Level 3 & 3


Eoc level 3 level 2

EOC Level 3 & Level 2


Eoc level 21

EOC Level 2


Elements present in your body

Elements present in your body

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

  • If carbon is present then the compound is considered ___________.


Four classes of organic biomolecules

Four Classes of Organic Biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids or fats

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio.

  • Function:

    • provide energy in plants and animals

    • cell support in plants.

  • Carbohydrates are the most readily available energy source when ingested. Main energy supply.


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • When carbs are broken down, energy is released as ATP.

  • If the energy is unneeded, then the glucose is stored:

    • Glycogen: in the liver or muscles.

    • Cellulose and starch: in plants.


Carbohydrate structure

Carbohydrate Structure

  • 1 carbohydrate = ______________

    • Glucose- most important, plant sugar

    • Fructose- fruit sugar

    • Galactose-milk sugar

  • When two monosaccharides combine they create a_______________

    sucrose — table sugar = glucose + fructose

    lactose — milk sugar = glucose + galactose

    maltose — malt sugar = glucose + glucose

    Many monosaccharides = ________________


After ingesting carbohydrates where do they go

After ingesting carbohydrates, where do they go?

  • Carbohydrate Digestion Animation


Carbohydrate structure1

Carbohydrate Structure

  • Carbohydrates can be isomers: same chemical formula, but different structural formula. 


Vocabulary week 2

Figure 3.15 Disaccharides Are Formed by Glycosidic Linkages (Part 2)

ThiThis is cellobiose, a subunit of cellulose, humans don’t have the enzymes to break this down, but cows do. To us it is merely roughage.

Cellulose is a very stable glucose polymer, and is the principle component of cell walls.


Dehydration synthesis aka polymerization

Dehydration Synthesis aka Polymerization

  • Process by which complex carbohydrates are made.

  • From the name it can be inferred that water is removed, resulting in a glycosidic bond.

  • Examples of polysaccharides:

    • Starch-stored excess plant sugars

    • Cellulose-plant cell wall formation

    • Glycogen-stored excess animal sugar.

  • To break apart carbohydrates hydrolysis must occur, i.e. the addition of water.

  • http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html


Lipids

Lipids

  • Lipid monomer: glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acid molecules .

  • Contain C, H, O

  • Long term energy

  • Fats, oils, wax, steroids

    cholesterol

    Nonpolar= do not dissolve


Vocabulary week 2

Figure 3.18 Synthesis of a Triglyceride


Energy and calories

Energy and Calories

  • Calorie is a unit of energy.

  • To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day

  • men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day

  • Carbs have 4cal/g

  • Fats have 9cal/g

  • Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.


Inquiry lab 2 calculating food calories

Inquiry Lab #2: Calculating Food Calories

  • Use the food labels around the room to gather calorie information.

  • Calculate

    • cal./g

    • cal./100g

  • Complete bar graph with the food type and calories per serving. Remember TALKS!


Lipids1

Lipids

  • There are three types of fatty acids:

    • Saturated fatty acid- all C-C are single, max number of H atoms, solid at room temp., ex. butter and meat fat

    • Unsaturated fatty acid-C-C are double or triple, usually liquid at room temp., ex. Peanut, corn, and olive oils

    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid- many C-C double or triple bonds, ex. Canola and vegetable oil.


Bellringer 9 3 13

Bellringer 9-3-13

  • Create a pie graph using the following questions.

  • ¼ graph state your favorite kind of vehicle

  • ¼ graph state your favorite type of pizza topping

  • 1/8 graph state your least favorite school lunch

  • 1/8 state your favorite color

  • 1/8 state your ideal job

  • 1/8 state your favorite season


Level 3

Level 3


Level 2

Level 2


Carbohydrate lipid review

Carbohydrate & Lipid Review

Carbohydrates

Lipids

  • Elements present: _________

  • Function: ________________

  • Source: __________________

  • Examples: ________________

  • Elements Present: _________

  • Function: ________________

  • Source: __________________

  • Examples:________________


Exit slip 9 3 12

Exit Slip 9-3-12

  • Create a model of a carbohydrate and a lipid as shown on your sheet.

  • Make sure that it is initialed for credit.


Bellringer 9 4 13

Bellringer 9-4-13

  • GENERALIZE the similarities between carbohydrates and lipids. GENERALIZE their differences.

  • 1. Complete your carbohydrate model.

  • 2. Complete your lipid molecule.

  • 3. Exit Slip due today.

  • 4. Grade Conferences Today

  • 5. Homework Due Tomorrow.


Proteins

Proteins

  • Contain: C, H, O, N, P, and S

  • Monomers of proteins are amino acids.

  • Amino acids link by peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains.

  • Proteins must fold to be functional.


Essential amino acids

Essential Amino Acids

  • Over 20 amino acids

    • 11 non-essential

    • 9 essential

    • These 9 are essential because they cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplemented.

  • Phenyalanine

  • Valine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Isoleucine

  • Methionine

  • Leucine

  • Lysine

  • Histidine


Proteins1

Proteins

  • Function of Proteins:

    • antibodies (immunity)

    • enzymes

    • cell structure

    • energy storage.

  • Can be found in meats/muscle, collagen (in cells), keratin (hair and nails).


Vocabulary list 4

Vocabulary List #4

  • 1. Monosaccharide- one sugar

  • 2. Disaccharide- two sugars

  • 3. Polysaccharide- many sugars

  • 4. Lipid- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids

  • 5. Enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst

  • 6. Metabolism- all chemical reactions in the body

  • 7. Catabolism- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food

  • 8. Anabolism- metabolism that involved building up e.g. steroids


Level 21

Level 2


Enzymes

Enzymes

  • Enzymes are proteins that are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells.

  • “ase”= enzymes

  • Enzymes form an enzyme-substrate complex , and speed up catabolic processes.

  • Enzyme Animation


Metabolism

Metabolism

  • Metabolism = chemical reactions in your body

  • Catabolism= breakdown

  • Anabolism= building up

  • The energy it takes to get a chemical reaction started is called the activation energy.

  • Some reactions take a long time; therefore, need a catalyst.

    • Catalyst-substance that speeds up the reaction

    • Catabolic Anabolic


Animations

Animations

  • Body Tract Animation

  • ADAM Animation

  • 40s Food Digestion


Enzymes sketch

Enzymes Sketch

  • Title the Page: Types of Metabolism, and divide sheet in 1/2

  • Draw Anabolism and Catabolism

  • Be sure to include these terms on both drawings:

    • Substrate

    • Product

    • Active site

    • Enzyme

    • Enzyme-substrate complex


Exit slip 9 9 13

Exit Slip 9-9-13


Vocabulary week 2

A


Vocabulary list 41

Vocabulary List #4

  • 1. ___________- one sugar

  • 2. ___________- two sugars

  • 3. ___________- many sugars

  • 4. ___________- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids

  • 5. ___________- protein that acts as a catalyst

  • 6. ___________- all chemical reactions in the body

  • 7. ___________- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food

  • 8. ___________- metabolism that involved building up e.g. steroids


Quiz tomorrow review

Quiz Tomorrow Review

  • Elements in a carbohydrate: ____________

  • Elements in a lipid: ____________

  • Function of a Carbohydrate: _____________

  • Function of a lipid: _______________

  • Monomer of a Carbohydrate: _________________

  • Monomer of a lipid: ___________________________

  • Carbohydrates are polar/nonpolar

  • Lipids are polar/nonpolar


Energy and calories1

Energy and Calories

  • Calorie is a unit of energy.

  • To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day

  • men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day

  • Carbs have 4cal/g

  • Fats have 9cal/g

  • Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.


So which exercise is good for you

So which exercise is good for you?


After you swallow where does it go

After you Swallow…Where does it go?

  • Digestion Animation

  • Lipid Metabolism


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • Contain: C, H, O, N, P

  • Monomer : nucleotide which consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.

  • Two Types of Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

    deoxyribose=sugar DNA

    ribose=sugar RNA

  • Codes for genetic information


Question of the day

Question of the Day

  • What are the four classes of biomolecules?

  • What are you planning on doing over Thanksgiving break?

  • Do your plans relate to your aspirations you wrote down on the first day?


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